Beneficial Nutritional Supplements to Support XMRV Patients
During the Q & A period following her recent XMRV presentation sponsored by the HHV-6 Foundation and ProHealth, Whittemore Peterson Institute Research Director Dr. Judy Mikovits, PhD, was asked what kind of therapies those who tested positive for the XMRV retrovirus could try until specific drug or other treatments are developed.
Although Dr. Mikovits was quick to note that she is not a physician, she mentioned five areas of concern for people with XMRV and suggested that nutritional supplementation to strengthen those areas could be helpful.
Based on her insights, ProHealth suggests a number of options known to be helpful for these concerns, as outlined below. Please note, however, that Dr. Mikovits has made no specific product recommendations, nor does she endorse these products in any way.
1. Decrease Inflammation
In her presentation, Dr. Mikovits said, "...we know that CFS is a multi system disorder but there's lots of inflammation going on - you have allergies, multiple chemical sensitivities. There's a lot of inflammation and increased numbers of activated T cells and the production of these inflammatory molecules I mentioned known as cytokines and kinokines."
When it comes to decreasing inflammation, there are two options: drugs and supplements. The drugs that help reduce inflammation are non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, both over-the-counter and prescription. In terms of supplements, below are five good anti-inflammatory options to consider:
2. Reduce Oxidative Stress
- Vitamin D - Vitamin D is known to play an important role in supporting the body's defenses against inflammatory diseases. In a 2008 study, increased concentrations of the inflammatory marker serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha were linked to a vitamin D deficiency in healthy women.(1) The findings from this study indicate that low vitamin D has a negative impact on inflammation and immune response.
- Curcumin - The use of curcumin to help the body fight inflammation dates back to ancient India where it was commonly used in Ayurvedic holistic medicine. In more recent times, researchers around the world have documented what one research team described as curcumin's "remarkable anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties."(2)
- Zyflamend - Zyflamend™ is a supplement blend containing 10 herbs which are known for their ability to promote a healthy inflammation response: rosemary, tumeric (cucumin), ginger, holy basil, green tea, hu zhang, Chinese goldthread, bayberry, oregano, and baikal skullcap. One of the ingredients, holy basil, is also an antioxidant and supports healthy cortisol levels, which are two additional areas Dr. Mikovits recommends strengthening.
- Proenzyme P - ProEnzyme P™ helps support the inflammation response system by utilizing systemic oral enzymes. These enzymes hasten the inflammation process to promote healthy tissue function. ProEnzyme P™ supports the inflammation response by helping the body to break up large pro-inflammatory immune complexes that have accumulated in the body.
- FibroFreedom - The FibroFreedom™ formula contains four ingredients that promote a healthy inflammation response: white willow bark, MSM, boswellin, and curcumin - as well as five additional nutrients that can help with other common symptoms of fibromyalgia and ME/CFS.
According to Dr. Mikovits, "Supplements [i.e., antioxidants] can help a lot because retroviruses cause a lot of oxidative stress.... Things like N-acetyl cysteine and glutathione (the detox type)."
We hear a lot about antioxidants these days because they are the body's natural defense system against harmful free radicals and are essential for overall good health. There are dozens of antioxidant products, like grapeseed and green tea extracts, on the market to choose from. Some particularly good antioxidant options to consider include:
3. Upregulate Natural Killer Cell Function
- Ultra Antioxidant - This is a combination of vitamins, herbs, and extracts that support the body in its fight against harmful free radicals. Ultra Antioxidant™ contains vitamin A (beta-carotene), Ester C®, and vitamin E - plus 12 other ingredients including alpha lipoic acid, green tea extract, grapeseed extract, N-acetylcysteine and L-glutathione, which all help to protect against free radical damage.
- Reduced L-Glutathione - Glutathione has been called the "master antioxidant" because it enables all other antioxidants to achieve their maximum benefit. It protects the body by targeting and destroying reactive oxygen molecules and free radicals. Glutathione also flushes away toxins, supports cell health and integrity, and strengthens immune system activity.
- N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) - N-acetyl cysteine is a potent antioxidant and cell detoxifier that is derived from the amino acid L-Cysteine. Its primary function is to enhance the production of glutathione.
- Alpha Lipoic Acid- Alpha Lipoic Acid, an antioidant in its own right, also enhances glutathione levels as well as supporting the action of other antioxidants. In his review of research on alpha lipoic acid in the journal Free Radical Biology & Medicine, Lester Packer, MD, PhD, writes that alpha lipoic acid acts as an antioxidant "not only directly, through radical quenching and metal chelation, but indirectly as well, through recycling of other antioxidants and through the induction of increased intracellular levels of glutathione."(3)
- ImmunoPro RX or ImmunPlex - Both of these products contain whey protein, which has exceptional amounts of cysteine and glutamine, the precursors required for the production of intracellular glutathione. Regarding whey protein concentrate, the journal Immunology reports, "The bioactivity occurs through the ability of the protein concentrate to help replenish Glutathione levels via continuous dietary provision of Glutathione precursors, especially Cysteine, during lymphocyte proliferation, thus supporting an optimal immune response. This process seems to not only increase intercellular levels of Glutathione and precursors at the time of ingestion, but also builds up stores of these substances within the cells that lasts for a substantial post-ingestion time interval."(4)
Natural Killer cells are an important part of the immune system. They are lymphocytes circulating in the blood whose purpose is to kill certain types of target cells - particularly cancer cells and cells that have been infected with a virus. New research has revealed that Natural Killer cells also play a role in keeping T cells - another major player in the immune system - from over-responding and causing harm.(5)
Dr. Mikovits explained the part Natural Killer cells play in the pathogenesis of ME/CFS, "A key dysfunction in the immune system of CFS patients is this low Natural Killer cell activity and sometimes numbers. The Natural Killer cell has two jobs in the body - kill tumor cells and kill virus-infected cells. In CFS it's long been recognized (I think first identified by Nancy Klimas and her colleagues more than 20 years ago) that Natural Killer cells in CFS patients don't function normally although the dysfunction is not known, but that again gives us a clue to the pathogenesis. So this suggested to us that this chronic infection with a retrovirus (retroviruses are associated with immune deficiencies) might lead to the creation of actual immune deficiency that has patients susceptible to opportunistic infections and more likely to develop cancer."
A number of different studies have confirmed irregularities of the immune systems of ME/CFS patients - sometimes it is over-reactive and other times it is under-reactive. Since we now know that Natural Killer cells can actually help control both, it appears that upregulating the function of natural killer cells should have a positive effect on helping to improve the immune system for people with ME/CFS.
Three supplements that can be beneficial in upregulating Natural Killer cell function are:
4. Monitor and Possibly Reduce Hormone Levels
- EpiCor Immune Complex - EpiCor® is a yeast-based immunogen that in a 2007 study was shown to activate Natural Killer cells.(6) Another study done a year later found that two hours after the comsumption of EpiCor, the number of Natural Killer cells had doubled.(7) In addition to its support of the immune system, EpiCor is also a powerful antioxidant.
- Transfer Factor Essentials - Transfer factors are tiny protein molecules produced by the T-cells of the immune system. Transfer Factor Essentials™ offers a complex blend of transfer factors plus vitamins and nutrients called Matrix 2000™ that works to stimulate and strengthen Natural Killer cells.
- AHCC with Beta Glucan - AHCC with Beta Glucan™ is an immune enhancing combination of AHCC (a proprietary blend of mushrooms that helps increase immune-regulating cells) and beta glucan, a potent yeast extract. Beta glucan boosts immune system cells including Natural Killer cells, macrophages, and neutrophils - which provide the immune system's first line of defense, help remove cellular debris, and support recovery of damaged tissue.
Thus far, only three things have been found that turn on the XMRV virus. Dr. Mikovits explained, "Two are called glucocorticoid response elements... When a protein actually recognizes that exact sequence and sits down, it tells the virus to turn on replication. And so, interestingly enough, what turns on the virus? Hormones - progesterone, androgen receptor and testosterone, and we don't know all the other hormones. There are a lot of estrogens and estrogen like compounds even in our environment these days, which might tell us maybe there's an estrogen compound that's not a naturally occurring estrogen in a plastic in the environment that is actually turning on the virus."
As for what to do regarding hormones, she said, "I don't know much about hormone therapies and how lowering hormone levels might help, but I do know anecdotally that a lot of women in a particular time in their cycle get much, much sicker and can't get over it. I do know in the laboratory, progesterone really upregulates the virus, so if you have a birth control pill… and again I don't really know anything about this... I'm not a physician... you might think about just keeping the levels balanced and avoiding the fluctuation."
The implication is that you might want to avoid anything containing progesterone or other hormone-related products, rethink the birth control pill, and maybe avoid pregnenolone, which is a precursor to progesterone & other hormones.
5. Balance Cortisol and Reduce Stress
The third thing known to turn the virus on is cortisol. Cortisol is a stress hormone that can turn on replication of the virus - like an on/off switch. Therefore, Dr. Mikovits recommends staying out of stressful situations, which of course is easier said than done. Since stress can't be avoided entirely, adding a supplement that aids in stress reduction may be helpful.
Three ProHealth products that can help balance magnesium include: Magnesium Plus, Natural Calm and Osteo Calm.
- Magnesium - The primary supplement that helps the body to deal with stress and thereby balance cortisol is magnesium. In fact, magnesium is often called "the anti-stress mineral" because of its calming effect. Since cortisol and other stress hormones can cause serious magnesium loss, it is important to replace the magnesium in order to support a healthy balance. Magnesium is needed by every cell in the body for more than 300 biochemical reactions, but the body does not store it, so it's important to replenish the body's supply of magnesium daily.
Much research still needs to be done before the possible impact of XMRV on ME/CFS and other neuro-immune illnesses is known and anti-retroviral or other treatments can be developed. In the meantime, Dr. Mikovits feels that addressing these five factors can be helpful.
1. Peterson CA, et al. "Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations are negatively correlated with serum 25(OH)D concentrations in healthy women." J Inflamm (Lond). 2008 Jul 24;5:10.
2. Phan TT, et al. "Protective effects of curcumin against oxidative damage on skin cells in vitro: its implication for wound healing." J Trauma. 2001 Nov;51(5):927-31.
3. Packer, L., et al. "Neuroprotection by the metabolic antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid." Free Radic Biol Med. 1997;22(1-2):359-78.
4. Fidelus RK, et al. "Glutathione and lymphocyte activation: a function of ageing and auto-immune disease." Immunology. 1987 August; 61(4): 503-508.
5. Lee SH, et al. "Activating receptors promote NK cell expansion for maintenance, IL-10 production, and CD8 T cell regulation during viral infection." J Exp Med. 2009 Sep 28;206(10):2235-51.
6. Jensen GS, Hart AN, Schauss AG. "An antiinflammatory immunogen from yeast culture induces activation and alters chemokine receptor expression on human natural killer cells and B lymphocytes in vitro." Nutrition Research. 2007 Jun;27(6):327-335.
7. Robinson LE, et al. "Rapid immune responses to EpiCor consumption in humans." Science Report. Embria Health Sciences, LLC. April, 2008.
Note: This information has not been evaluated by the FDA. It is general and is not meant to prevent, diagnose, treat or cure any illness, condition, or disease. It is very important that you make no change in your healthcare plan or health support regimen without researching and discussing it in collaboration with your professional healthcare team.