Modifiable Determinants of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status in Early Childhood: Opportunities for Prevention.
– Source: Journal of the American Medical Association, January 14, 2013
By: J.L. Maguire, et al.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of modifiable dietary intake variables (current vitamin D supplementation and daily cow's milk intake) on 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in early childhood and to evaluate the relationship between these modifiable dietary factors and other largely nonmodifiable determinants of vitamin D status including skin pigmentation and season.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
SETTING: Primary care pediatric and family medicine practices participating in the TARGet Kids! practice-based research network in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
PARTICIPANTS: From December 2008 to June 2011, healthy children 1 to 5 years of age were recruited during a routine physician's visit.
INTERVENTIONS: Survey, anthropometric measurements, and laboratory data were collected. A multivariable linear regression model was developed to examine the independent effects of vitamin D supplementation and daily volume of cow's milk on 25-hydroxyvitamin D level.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D level.
RESULTS: Blood was obtained in 1898 children.
Two modifiable dietary intake variables, vitamin D supplementation and cow's milk, increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D level by 3.4 ng/mL (95% CI, 2-4 ng/mL) and 1.6 ng/mL per 250-mL cup per day (95% CI, 1-2 ng/mL), respectively.
Two nonmodifiable variables reflecting cutaneous vitamin D synthesis (skin pigmentation and season) were also strongly associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D status but accounted for a much smaller proportion of the explained variation in 25-hydroxyvitamin D level.
The effect of vitamin D supplementation and milk intake on 25-hydroxyvitamin D level appeared similar regardless of skin pigmentation or season.
CONCLUSION: Two modifiable dietary intake variables (vitamin D supplementation and cow's milk intake) are the most important determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in early childhood.
Source: Journal of the American Medical Association, January 14, 2013. By: J.L. Maguire, C.S. Birken, M. Khovratovich, J. Degroot, S. Carsley, K.E. Thorpe, M. Mamdani and P.C. Parkin; for the TARGet Kids! Collaboration.