ProHealth fibromyalgia Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Home  |  Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help

|
|
|

Trending News

Drug Combo in Pridgen Antiviral Fibromyalgia Trial Identified – Some Results Available

7 Fibromyalgia Seasonal Stress Strategies

Blunted Anti-Inflammatory Response to Exercise Increases Fibromyalgia Symptoms

Fibromyalgia Associated with Coronary Heart Disease

Happiness, Gratitude and Appreciation

Cytokine and Chemokine Profiles in Fibromyalgia, RA and Lupus: A Potentially Useful Tool in Differen...

FDA Approves Hysingla ER – Extended-Release Hydrocodone with Abuse-Deterrent Properties

5 Safety Tips for the Holidays for Persons Living with Fibromyalgia and Myofascial Pain Syndrome

Sense of Smell Impaired in Fibromyalgia Patients

Energy Breakthrough - One Fibromyalgia Patient’s Fortuitous Discovery

 
Print Page
Email Article

A metagenomic approach to investigate the microbial causes of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: moving beyond XMRV

  [ 6 votes ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
By Ruth R. Miller et al. • www.ProHealth.com • October 20, 2013


A metagenomic approach to investigate the microbial causes of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: moving beyond XMRV. Image credit: FreeDigitalPhotos.net by chrisroll
Image credit: FreeDigitalPhotos.net by chrisroll

By Ruth R. Miller et al.

EDITORIAL

Three years ago, a novel association between myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and the murine retrovirus XMRV was published.[1] Since then, 191 papers have been published on the subject (NCBI PubMed, accessed 6 November 2012), largely disproving the initial association, a trend confirmed by a recent multicentre blinded trial which definitively concluded that there is no association between ME/CFS and XMRV.[2] It is therefore time to revisit the investigation of ME/CFS aetiology. Metagenomics offers a promising new opportunity for hypothesis discovery in microbial associations with ME/CFS, and we describe herein the technical basis of this approach and its advantages in aetiological agent investigation.

Metagenomics: a brief primer

Metagenomics is the analysis of all nucleic acid recovered directly from a clinical or environmental sample. Using next-generation sequencing platforms, researchers can sequence the DNA of an entire sample, generating multiple short sequences known as “reads.” Computational techniques can then be used to identify the microbes present in the sample (the “microbiome”) and their relative abundance. Improvements in sequencing platforms have brought the cost of a typical metagenomics sample to under $200, resulting in an increasing number of metagenomics-based analyses in the literature. A complete microbial census of various body sites was performed on 250 human volunteers as part of the Human Microbiome Project,[3] while subsequent “metagenome-wide association studies” (MGWAS) have compared the microbiomes of healthy individuals to those with various conditions. Amongst other findings, these data have identified associations between inflammatory bowel disease and enterobacteriaceae,[4] colorectal carcinoma and fusobacterium,[5] and type two diabetes and butyrate-producing bacteria.[6]

Metagenomics for ME/CFS

Metagenomics offers an unbiased opportunity to investigate potential novel associations between microbes and ME/CFS. Unlike previous studies, which have examined the host immune response, response to antimicrobial treatment regimens, or used PCR-based screening, a metagenomics protocol replaces the reductionist search for a specific agent with a more holistic discovery-oriented strategy capable of revealing associations with new candidate aetiological agents, including novel pathogens. Metagenomics also offers several other advantages relative to other experimental approaches, summarised in Table 1. These include technical advantages, such as the elimination of a culture step and the ability to detect low-abundance microorganisms. More general opportunities include the ability to investigate the role of microbial communities and/or functional networks in ME/CFS as opposed to an individual species.

The metagenomics approach is also unique in that even a negative result is of use. Presuming a study is performed with sufficient power and scientific rigour, metagenomics has the potential to detect any microbe in a sample; therefore the lack of observed associations between ME/CFS and microbial entities would provide strong, albeit not conclusive, evidence that the origins of ME/CFS lie in non-infectious causes. However, it must be noted that metagenomics is not able to prove that a disease was instigated by a microbe if it has since been removed from the body site of investigation. Nevertheless, even if the causal microbe is no longer present, it may have changed the composition of the microbiome, by altering the presence or relative abundance of other microbes. Such changes could be detected by metagenomics and be used to diagnose and, in principle, treat the symptoms of ME/CFS, even if not the initial cause.

Read the rest of this Open Access article HERE.

Citation: Ruth R. Miller , Jennifer L. Gardy , Patrick Tang & David M. Patrick , Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior (2013): A metagenomic approach to investigate the microbial causes of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: moving beyond XMRV, Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior DOI:10.1080/21641846.2013.812831



Please Discuss This Article:   Post a Comment 



[ Be the first to comment on this article ]




 
Free Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia Newsletters
Subscribe to
Our FREE
Newsletter
Subscribe Now!
Receive up-to-date ME/CFS & Fibromyalgia treatment and research news
 Privacy Guaranteed  |  View Archives

Save on Nutritional Supplement Orders

Featured Products

Guaifenesin FA™ Guaifenesin FA™
Natural Expectorant Relieves Chest Congestion
Optimized Curcumin Longvida® by ProHealth Optimized Curcumin Longvida® by ProHealth
Supports Cognition, Memory & Overall Health
B-12 Extreme™ B-12 Extreme™
The Most Potent Vitamin B-12 on Earth
FibroSleep™ by ProHealth FibroSleep™ by ProHealth
The All-in-One Natural Sleep Aid
Hydroxocobalamin Extreme™ Hydroxocobalamin Extreme™
The B-12 your brain needs for detox & sharpness

Natural Remedies

Preserving Cognitive Function with Aging Preserving Cognitive Function with Aging
Could a B-12 Deficiency Be Causing Your Symptoms? Could a B-12 Deficiency Be Causing Your Symptoms?
Are You Obtaining the Proper Enzymes? Are You Obtaining the Proper Enzymes?
Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Unlocking the Secrets of Peppermint, Acacia and Fennel Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Unlocking the Secrets of Peppermint, Acacia and Fennel
Protect Against Sun-Induced Skin Aging From The Inside Out Protect Against Sun-Induced Skin Aging From The Inside Out

FIBROMYALGIA RESOURCES
What is Fibromyalgia?
Fibromyalgia Diagnosis
Fibromyalgia Symptoms
Fibromyalgia Treatments
| CFS RESOURCES
What is CFS?
ME/CFS Diagnosis
ME/CFS Symptoms
ME/CFS Treatments
| FORUMS
Fibromyalgia
ME/CFS
ADVANCED MEDICAL LABS
WHOLESALE  |  AFFILIATES
GUARANTEE  |  PRIVACY
CONTACT US
LIBRARY
RSS
SITE MAP
ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus
Credit Card Processing