[Note: Partially hydrogenated oils are industrially created by the addition of hydrogen to naturally occurring vegetable oils so that they remain solid at normal storage temperatures (e.g., margarine) and have a higher melting point which makes them attractive for baking and extends their shelf life.]
Background: Most knowledge about adverse health effects of trans fats was mainly derived from studies done in Western populations of European or American origins; few data are available in the understudied region of the Middle East.
Objective: We assessed the association between consumption of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) and non-HVOs and circulating concentrations of inflammatory markers among Tehrani women aged 40–60 years.
Design: Usual dietary intakes were assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire among 486 apparently healthy women.
• PHVOs (commonly used for cooking in Iran) were considered as PHVOs category.
• Sunflower oil, corn oil, canola oil, soybean oil, and olive oil were defined as non-HVOs. [“Canola” oil is derived from a genetically engineered plant developed in Canada from the rapeseed plant.]
Anthropometric measurements were done, and fasting blood samples were taken to measure inflammatory markers. [Four markers indicative of inflammation and injury to endothelial cells lining the blood vessels.]
Results: The energy-adjusted daily intakes (mean ± SD) of PHVOs and non-HVOs were 23 ± 11 and 22 ± 10 g/d, respectively. After control for potential confounders, women in the highest quintile of PHVO intake had higher plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP; percentage difference from lowest quintile: 45%; P for trend: <0.01), tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- ; 66%; P for trend: <0.01), interleukin-6 (72%; P for trend: <0.05), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1; 22%; P for trend: <0.01) than did women in the lowest quintile.
In contrast, higher consumption of non-HVOs was associated with lower circulating concentrations of CRP (percentage difference between top and bottom quintiles: –23%; P for trend: 0.05), TNF- (–29%; P for trend: <0.01), serum amyloid A (–24%; P for trend: <0.01), and sICAM-1 (–19%; P for trend:<0.05). Adjustment for body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, and lipid profiles slightly attenuated the associations in some cases.
Conclusions: Higher intakes of PHVOs are associated with elevated concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers, whereas higher intakes of non-HVOs are associated with lower plasma concentrations of these biomarkers.
Source: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Oct 2008: 88(4), Esmaillzadeh A, Azadbakht L. Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health; Food Security and Nutrition Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. [E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]