Activate Now
 
ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Home  |  Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help
Facebook Google Plus
Fibromyalgia  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E.  Lyme Disease  Natural Wellness  Supplement News  Forums  Our Story
Store     Brands   |   A-Z Index   |   Best Sellers   |   New Products   |   Deals & Specials   |   Under $10   |   SmartSavings Club

Trending News

Patient Insights into the Design of Technology to Support a Strengths-Based Approach to Health Care.

SURVEY: Weight Management & Chronic Illness

Japanese green tea consumers have reduced risk of dementia

Do Nothing, Accomplish Everything! The Connection Between Breathing and Healing

Meet the ProHealth Editors

Best Herbs to Help With Insomnia

Nature Heals

Choline: Why You Should Eat Your Egg Yolks and Take Krill

Calcium, vitamin D supplementation associated improved stroke recovery

Acupressure reduced fatigue in breast cancer survivors

 
Print Page
Email Article

On the Epidemiology of Influenza - Source: Virology Journal, Feb 2008

  [ 12 votes ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
By John J Cannell, et al. • www.ProHealth.com • October 12, 2008


[Note: the full text of this open-access article, outlining evidence that sun/vitamin D status could have "profound implications for the prevention of influenza" is available free at http://www.virologyj.com/content/5/1/29 ]

The epidemiology of influenza swarms with incongruities, incongruities exhaustively detailed by the late British epidemiologist, Edgar Hope-Simpson. He was the first to propose a parsimonious theory explaining why influenza is, as Gregg said, "seemingly unmindful of traditional infectious disease behavioral patterns."

Recent discoveries indicate vitamin D upregulates the endogenous antibiotics of innate immunity and suggest that the incongruities explored by Hope-Simpson may be secondary to the epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency. We identify – and attempt to explain – nine influenza conundrums:

1. Why is influenza both seasonal and ubiquitous and where is the virus between epidemics?

2. Why are the epidemics so explosive?

3. Why do they end so abruptly?

4. What explains the frequent coincidental timing of epidemics in countries of similar latitude?

5. Why is the serial interval obscure?

6. Why is the secondary attack rate so low?

7. Why did epidemics in previous ages spread so rapidly, despite the lack of modern transport?

8. Why does experimental inoculation of seronegative humans fail to cause illness in all the volunteers?

9. Why has influenza mortality of the aged not declined as their vaccination rates increased?

We review recent discoveries about vitamin D's effects on innate immunity, human studies attempting sick-to-well transmission, naturalistic reports of human transmission, studies of serial interval, secondary attack rates, and relevant animal studies.

We hypothesize that two factors explain the nine conundrums:

• Vitamin D's seasonal and population effects on innate immunity,

•And the presence of a subpopulation of "good infectors."

If true, our revision of Edgar Hope-Simpson's theory has profound implications for the prevention of influenza.

Source: Virology Journal, Feb 2008, 5:29; DOI:10.1186/1743-422X-5-29 by Cannell JJ, Zasloff M, Garland CF, Scragg R, Giovannucci E. Department of Psychiatry, Atascadero State Hospital, California; Departments of Surgery and Pediatrics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC; Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Auckland, New Zealand; Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. [E-mail: jjcannell@gmail.com ]





Post a Comment

Featured Products From the ProHealth Store
Ultra ATP+, Double Strength Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil Optimized Curcumin Longvida®

Looking for Vitamins, Herbs and Supplements?
Search the ProHealth Store for Hundreds of Natural Health Products


Article Comments



Be the first to comment on this article!

Post a Comment


 
Natural Pain Relief Supplements

Featured Products

Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil Ultra EPA - Fish Oil
Ultra concentrated source of essential fish oils
FibroSleep™ FibroSleep™
The All-in-One Natural Sleep Aid
Energy NADH™ 12.5mg Energy NADH™ 12.5mg
Improve Energy & Cognitive Function
Vitamin D3 Extreme™ Vitamin D3 Extreme™
50,000 IU Vitamin D3 - Prescription Strength
Ultra ATP+, Double Strength Ultra ATP+, Double Strength
Get energized with malic acid & magnesium

Natural Remedies

Sunshine Vitamin Has D-lightful Health Benefits Sunshine Vitamin Has D-lightful Health Benefits
Stop Bacteria With Nature's Antibiotics Stop Bacteria With Nature's Antibiotics
Safely Burn Away Body Fat Safely Burn Away Body Fat
Front Line Defense Against Colds & Flu - Support for Healthy Immune System Balance Front Line Defense Against Colds & Flu - Support for Healthy Immune System Balance
Red Yeast Rice - Natural Option for Supporting Healthy Cholesterol Red Yeast Rice - Natural Option for Supporting Healthy Cholesterol

CONTACT US
ProHealth, Inc.
555 Maple Ave
Carpinteria, CA 93013
(800) 366-6056  |  Email

· Become a Wholesaler
· Vendor Inquiries
· Affiliate Program
SHOP WITH CONFIDENCE
Credit Card Processing
SUBSCRIBE AND SAVE 15% NOW*
Be the first to know about new products, special discounts and the latest health news. *New subscribers only

CONNECT WITH US ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus

© 2016 ProHealth, Inc. All rights reserved. Pain Tracker App  |  Store  |  Customer Service  |  Guarantee  |  Privacy  |  Contact Us  |  Library  |  RSS  |  Site Map