ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help

|
|
|
|

Trending News

Gut Bacteria, Artificial Sweeteners and Glucose Intolerance

Culprits of Autism Identified: Toxins, Gut Bacteria, Nutritional Deficiencies, and Vaccines Made wit...

Turmeric compound boosts regeneration of brain stem cells

Lower risk of mortality over thirteen year period in association with higher levels of vitamin D

Reverse Mitochondrial Damage

Use of Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics Before Age 2 Associated with Obesity Risk

VIDEO: Beautiful Clouds - Relaxation and Meditation

CoQ10: The Longevity Factor

Elevated plasma biomarkers of chronic inflammation in Gulf War illness

Higher vitamin E intake linked with lower blood pressure

 
Print Page
Email Article

On the Epidemiology of Influenza - Source: Virology Journal, Feb 2008

  [ 12 votes ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
By John J Cannell, et al. • www.ProHealth.com • October 12, 2008


[Note: the full text of this open-access article, outlining evidence that sun/vitamin D status could have "profound implications for the prevention of influenza" is available free at http://www.virologyj.com/content/5/1/29 ]

The epidemiology of influenza swarms with incongruities, incongruities exhaustively detailed by the late British epidemiologist, Edgar Hope-Simpson. He was the first to propose a parsimonious theory explaining why influenza is, as Gregg said, "seemingly unmindful of traditional infectious disease behavioral patterns."

Recent discoveries indicate vitamin D upregulates the endogenous antibiotics of innate immunity and suggest that the incongruities explored by Hope-Simpson may be secondary to the epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency. We identify – and attempt to explain – nine influenza conundrums:

1. Why is influenza both seasonal and ubiquitous and where is the virus between epidemics?

2. Why are the epidemics so explosive?

3. Why do they end so abruptly?

4. What explains the frequent coincidental timing of epidemics in countries of similar latitude?

5. Why is the serial interval obscure?

6. Why is the secondary attack rate so low?

7. Why did epidemics in previous ages spread so rapidly, despite the lack of modern transport?

8. Why does experimental inoculation of seronegative humans fail to cause illness in all the volunteers?

9. Why has influenza mortality of the aged not declined as their vaccination rates increased?

We review recent discoveries about vitamin D's effects on innate immunity, human studies attempting sick-to-well transmission, naturalistic reports of human transmission, studies of serial interval, secondary attack rates, and relevant animal studies.

We hypothesize that two factors explain the nine conundrums:

• Vitamin D's seasonal and population effects on innate immunity,

•And the presence of a subpopulation of "good infectors."

If true, our revision of Edgar Hope-Simpson's theory has profound implications for the prevention of influenza.

Source: Virology Journal, Feb 2008, 5:29; DOI:10.1186/1743-422X-5-29 by Cannell JJ, Zasloff M, Garland CF, Scragg R, Giovannucci E. Department of Psychiatry, Atascadero State Hospital, California; Departments of Surgery and Pediatrics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC; Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Auckland, New Zealand; Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. [E-mail: jjcannell@gmail.com ]




Please Discuss This Article:   Post a Comment 



[ Be the first to comment on this article ]




 
Free Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia Newsletters
Subscribe to
Our FREE
Newsletter
Subscribe Now!
Receive up-to-date ME/CFS & Fibromyalgia treatment and research news
 Privacy Guaranteed  |  View Archives

Save on Vitamins and Supplements

Featured Products

Vitamin D3 Extreme™ by ProHealth Vitamin D3 Extreme™ by ProHealth
50,000 IU Vitamin D3 - Prescription Strength
Ultra ATP+, Double Strength Ultra ATP+, Double Strength
Get energized with malic acid & magnesium
Energy NADH™ 12.5mg Energy NADH™ 12.5mg
Improve Energy & Cognitive Function
FibroSleep™ by ProHealth FibroSleep™ by ProHealth
The All-in-One Natural Sleep Aid
Optimized Curcumin Longvida® by ProHealth Optimized Curcumin Longvida® by ProHealth
Supports Cognition, Memory & Overall Health

Natural Remedies

Reversing Neurodegeneration with a New Magnesium Compound Reversing Neurodegeneration with a New Magnesium Compound
Itching to Find Dry Skin Relief? Itching to Find Dry Skin Relief?
Live Longer: Groundbreaking Research on Omega-3s Live Longer: Groundbreaking Research on Omega-3s
Ubiquinol - A More Advanced Form of the Energy Producing Nutrient CoQ-10 Ubiquinol - A More Advanced Form of the Energy Producing Nutrient CoQ-10
Could a B-12 Deficiency Be Causing Your Symptoms? Could a B-12 Deficiency Be Causing Your Symptoms?

FIBROMYALGIA RESOURCES
What is Fibromyalgia?
Fibromyalgia 101
Fibromyalgia Symptoms
Fibromyalgia Treatments
| CFS RESOURCES
What is CFS?
ME/CFS 101
ME/CFS Symptoms
ME/CFS Treatments
| FORUMS
Fibromyalgia
ME/CFS
ADVANCED MEDICAL LABS
WHOLESALE  |  AFFILIATES
GUARANTEE
CONTACT US
PRIVACY
RSS
SITE MAP
ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus
Credit Card Processing