ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help

|
|
|
|

Trending News

Gut Bacteria, Artificial Sweeteners and Glucose Intolerance

Culprits of Autism Identified: Toxins, Gut Bacteria, Nutritional Deficiencies, and Vaccines Made wit...

Vitamin E intake critical during 'the first 1,000 days'

Turmeric compound boosts regeneration of brain stem cells

Lower risk of mortality over thirteen year period in association with higher levels of vitamin D

Reverse Mitochondrial Damage

Use of Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics Before Age 2 Associated with Obesity Risk

VIDEO: Beautiful Clouds - Relaxation and Meditation

CoQ10: The Longevity Factor

Elevated plasma biomarkers of chronic inflammation in Gulf War illness

 
Print Page
Email Article

Depressive Symptoms, Health Behaviors, and Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease – Source: JAMA, Nov 26, 2008

  [ 5 votes ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
By Mary A. Whooley, MD, et al. • www.ProHealth.com • December 3, 2008


[Coronary heart disease involves narrowing/stiffening of the vessels supplying blood & oxygen to the heart muscle and surrounding tissue. It’s the leading cause of death in the U.S. for both sexes.]

Context: Depressive symptoms predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease, but the mechanisms responsible for this association are unknown.

Objective: To determine why depressive symptoms are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events.

Design and Participants: The Heart and Soul Study is a prospective cohort study of 1017 outpatients with stable coronary heart disease followed up for a mean (SD) of 4.8 (1.4) years.

Setting: Participants were recruited between September 11, 2000, and December 20, 2002, from 12 outpatient clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area and were followed up to January 12, 2008.

Main Outcome Measures: Baseline depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). We used proportional hazards models to evaluate the extent to which the association of depressive symptoms with subsequent cardiovascular events (heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, or death) was explained by baseline disease severity and potential biological or behavioral mediators.

Results: A total of 341 cardiovascular events occurred during 4876 person-years of follow-up. The age-adjusted annual rate of cardiovascular events was 10.0% among the 199 participants with depressive symptoms (PHQ score 10) and 6.7% among the 818 participants without depressive symptoms (hazard ratio [HR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval, [CI], 1.16-1.95; P = .002).

After adjustment for comorbid conditions and disease severity, depressive symptoms were associated with a 31% higher rate of cardiovascular events (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.00-1.71; P = .04).

Additional adjustment for potential biological mediators attenuated this association (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.94-1.63; P = .12).

After further adjustment for potential behavioral mediators, including physical inactivity, there was no significant association (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.79-1.40; P = .75).

Conclusion: In this sample of outpatients with coronary heart disease, the association between depressive symptoms and adverse cardiovascular events was largely explained by behavioral factors, particularly physical inactivity.

Source: Journal of the American Medical Association, Nov 26, 2008; 300(20):2379-2388. PMID:, by Whooley MA, de Jonge P, Vittinghoff E, Otte C, Moos R, Carney RM, Ali S, Dowray S, Na B, Feldman MD, Schiller NB, Browner WS. VA Medical Center, San Francisco, California; University of California, San Francisco; University of Groningen and Tilburg University, the Netherlands; University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; Palo Alto VA Health Care System and Stanford University, California; Washington University, St Louis, Missouri; California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California. [E-mail: mary.whooley@ucsf.edu]




Please Discuss This Article:   Post a Comment 



[ Be the first to comment on this article ]




 
Free Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia Newsletters
Subscribe to
Our FREE
Newsletter
Subscribe Now!
Receive up-to-date ME/CFS & Fibromyalgia treatment and research news
 Privacy Guaranteed  |  View Archives

Save on Vitamins and Supplements

Featured Products

Optimized Curcumin Longvida® by ProHealth Optimized Curcumin Longvida® by ProHealth
Supports Cognition, Memory & Overall Health
Vitamin D3 Extreme™ by ProHealth Vitamin D3 Extreme™ by ProHealth
50,000 IU Vitamin D3 - Prescription Strength
Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor®
Reduce Fatigue up to 45%
Energy NADH™ 12.5mg Energy NADH™ 12.5mg
Improve Energy & Cognitive Function
Ultra ATP+, Double Strength Ultra ATP+, Double Strength
Get energized with malic acid & magnesium

Natural Remedies

Sunshine Vitamin Has D-lightful Health Benefits Sunshine Vitamin Has D-lightful Health Benefits
Research Links Green Tea to Weight Loss Research Links Green Tea to Weight Loss
Reversing Neurodegeneration with a New Magnesium Compound Reversing Neurodegeneration with a New Magnesium Compound
VIDEO: Healthy Eating and Fibromyalgia VIDEO: Healthy Eating and Fibromyalgia
Are You Obtaining the Proper Enzymes? Are You Obtaining the Proper Enzymes?

FIBROMYALGIA RESOURCES
What is Fibromyalgia?
Fibromyalgia 101
Fibromyalgia Symptoms
Fibromyalgia Treatments
| CFS RESOURCES
What is CFS?
ME/CFS 101
ME/CFS Symptoms
ME/CFS Treatments
| FORUMS
Fibromyalgia
ME/CFS
ADVANCED MEDICAL LABS
WHOLESALE  |  AFFILIATES
GUARANTEE
CONTACT US
PRIVACY
RSS
SITE MAP
ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus
Credit Card Processing