ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Home  |  Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help
Facebook Google Plus
Fibromyalgia  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E.  Lyme Disease  Natural Wellness  Supplement News  Forums  Our Story
Store     Brands   |   A-Z Index   |   Best Sellers   |   New Products   |   Deals & Specials   |   Under $10   |   SmartSavings Club

Trending News

16 Tips from 16 Years Sick

Fibromyalgia Fare Fit for All Seasons

New Study Shows Artificial Sweeteners Lead to Diabetes

Essential Oils — An Effective and Healthy Option to Treat Headaches

Antioxidant treatment could halt neurodegeneration in early Parkinson's

Higher vitamin D levels associated with less severe disease in NAFLD patients

Krill Oil: Make This Omega-3 Supplement Part of Your Health Regimen

How zinc helps fight esophageal cancer

Everything You Need to Know About Black Cohosh

Low vitamin D levels predict ED in diabetics

 
Print Page
Email Article

Depressive Symptoms, Health Behaviors, and Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease – Source: JAMA, Nov 26, 2008

  [ 5 votes ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
By Mary A. Whooley, MD, et al. • www.ProHealth.com • December 3, 2008


[Coronary heart disease involves narrowing/stiffening of the vessels supplying blood & oxygen to the heart muscle and surrounding tissue. It’s the leading cause of death in the U.S. for both sexes.]

Context: Depressive symptoms predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease, but the mechanisms responsible for this association are unknown.

Objective: To determine why depressive symptoms are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events.

Design and Participants: The Heart and Soul Study is a prospective cohort study of 1017 outpatients with stable coronary heart disease followed up for a mean (SD) of 4.8 (1.4) years.

Setting: Participants were recruited between September 11, 2000, and December 20, 2002, from 12 outpatient clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area and were followed up to January 12, 2008.

Main Outcome Measures: Baseline depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). We used proportional hazards models to evaluate the extent to which the association of depressive symptoms with subsequent cardiovascular events (heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, or death) was explained by baseline disease severity and potential biological or behavioral mediators.

Results: A total of 341 cardiovascular events occurred during 4876 person-years of follow-up. The age-adjusted annual rate of cardiovascular events was 10.0% among the 199 participants with depressive symptoms (PHQ score 10) and 6.7% among the 818 participants without depressive symptoms (hazard ratio [HR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval, [CI], 1.16-1.95; P = .002).

After adjustment for comorbid conditions and disease severity, depressive symptoms were associated with a 31% higher rate of cardiovascular events (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.00-1.71; P = .04).

Additional adjustment for potential biological mediators attenuated this association (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.94-1.63; P = .12).

After further adjustment for potential behavioral mediators, including physical inactivity, there was no significant association (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.79-1.40; P = .75).

Conclusion: In this sample of outpatients with coronary heart disease, the association between depressive symptoms and adverse cardiovascular events was largely explained by behavioral factors, particularly physical inactivity.

Source: Journal of the American Medical Association, Nov 26, 2008; 300(20):2379-2388. PMID:, by Whooley MA, de Jonge P, Vittinghoff E, Otte C, Moos R, Carney RM, Ali S, Dowray S, Na B, Feldman MD, Schiller NB, Browner WS. VA Medical Center, San Francisco, California; University of California, San Francisco; University of Groningen and Tilburg University, the Netherlands; University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; Palo Alto VA Health Care System and Stanford University, California; Washington University, St Louis, Missouri; California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California. [E-mail: mary.whooley@ucsf.edu]





Post a Comment

Featured Products From the ProHealth Store
FibroSleep™ Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® Optimized Curcumin Longvida®


Article Comments



Be the first to comment on this article!

Post a Comment


 
Optimized Curcumin Longvida with Omega-3

Featured Products

Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor®
Reduce Fatigue up to 45%
Energy NADH™ 12.5mg Energy NADH™ 12.5mg
Improve Energy & Cognitive Function
FibroSleep™ FibroSleep™
The All-in-One Natural Sleep Aid
Ultra ATP+, Double Strength Ultra ATP+, Double Strength
Get energized with malic acid & magnesium
Vitamin D3 Extreme™ Vitamin D3 Extreme™
50,000 IU Vitamin D3 - Prescription Strength

Natural Remedies

Fighting Fatigue with Ground-breaking French Oak Wood Extract Fighting Fatigue with Ground-breaking French Oak Wood Extract
When a Negative is Positive - Goodnighties Recovery Sleepwear When a Negative is Positive - Goodnighties Recovery Sleepwear
Front Line Defense Against Colds & Flu - Support for Healthy Immune System Balance Front Line Defense Against Colds & Flu - Support for Healthy Immune System Balance
Vitamin K-2 – A Key Player in Cardiovascular and Bone Health Vitamin K-2 – A Key Player in Cardiovascular and Bone Health
Relief for Dry, Itchy Skin Caused by Fibromyalgia Relief for Dry, Itchy Skin Caused by Fibromyalgia

CONTACT US
ProHealth, Inc.
555 Maple Ave
Carpinteria, CA 93013
(800) 366-6056  |  Email

· Become a Wholesaler
· Vendor Inquiries
· Affiliate Program
SHOP WITH CONFIDENCE
Credit Card Processing
SUBSCRIBE TO OUR NEWSLETTERS
Get the latest news about Fibromyalgia, M.E/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Lyme Disease and Natural Wellness

CONNECT WITH US ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus

© 2017 ProHealth, Inc. All rights reserved. Pain Tracker App  |  Store  |  Customer Service  |  Guarantee  |  Privacy  |  Contact Us  |  Library  |  RSS  |  Site Map