ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Home  |  Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help
Facebook Google Plus
Fibromyalgia  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E.  Lyme Disease  Natural Wellness  Supplement News  Forums  Our Story
Store     Brands   |   A-Z Index   |   Best Sellers   |   New Products   |   Deals & Specials   |   Under $10   |   SmartSavings Club

Trending News

B Vitamins May Protect Against Damaging Effects of Air Pollution, and Improve Cognition and Psychiat...

Relief for IBS, Colitis, Crohn’s And More

Can Magnesium Relieve Your Tinnitus?

Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS) - are you running a marathon each night?

Resveratrol Proven to Slow Brain Aging

Magnesium Protects Against Stroke, Heart Disease and Diabetes

Fruits and vegetables' latest superpower? Lowering blood pressure

Neroli Oil: The Pleasantly Fragrant Citrus Oil

Prenatal vitamin D could help prevent autism in children

Restoring NAD+ could reduce DNA damage accumulation

 
Print Page
Email Article

Depressive Symptoms, Health Behaviors, and Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease – Source: JAMA, Nov 26, 2008

  [ 5 votes ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
By Mary A. Whooley, MD, et al. • www.ProHealth.com • December 3, 2008


[Coronary heart disease involves narrowing/stiffening of the vessels supplying blood & oxygen to the heart muscle and surrounding tissue. It’s the leading cause of death in the U.S. for both sexes.]

Context: Depressive symptoms predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease, but the mechanisms responsible for this association are unknown.

Objective: To determine why depressive symptoms are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events.

Design and Participants: The Heart and Soul Study is a prospective cohort study of 1017 outpatients with stable coronary heart disease followed up for a mean (SD) of 4.8 (1.4) years.

Setting: Participants were recruited between September 11, 2000, and December 20, 2002, from 12 outpatient clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area and were followed up to January 12, 2008.

Main Outcome Measures: Baseline depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). We used proportional hazards models to evaluate the extent to which the association of depressive symptoms with subsequent cardiovascular events (heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, or death) was explained by baseline disease severity and potential biological or behavioral mediators.

Results: A total of 341 cardiovascular events occurred during 4876 person-years of follow-up. The age-adjusted annual rate of cardiovascular events was 10.0% among the 199 participants with depressive symptoms (PHQ score 10) and 6.7% among the 818 participants without depressive symptoms (hazard ratio [HR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval, [CI], 1.16-1.95; P = .002).

After adjustment for comorbid conditions and disease severity, depressive symptoms were associated with a 31% higher rate of cardiovascular events (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.00-1.71; P = .04).

Additional adjustment for potential biological mediators attenuated this association (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.94-1.63; P = .12).

After further adjustment for potential behavioral mediators, including physical inactivity, there was no significant association (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.79-1.40; P = .75).

Conclusion: In this sample of outpatients with coronary heart disease, the association between depressive symptoms and adverse cardiovascular events was largely explained by behavioral factors, particularly physical inactivity.

Source: Journal of the American Medical Association, Nov 26, 2008; 300(20):2379-2388. PMID:, by Whooley MA, de Jonge P, Vittinghoff E, Otte C, Moos R, Carney RM, Ali S, Dowray S, Na B, Feldman MD, Schiller NB, Browner WS. VA Medical Center, San Francisco, California; University of California, San Francisco; University of Groningen and Tilburg University, the Netherlands; University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; Palo Alto VA Health Care System and Stanford University, California; Washington University, St Louis, Missouri; California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California. [E-mail: mary.whooley@ucsf.edu]





Post a Comment

Featured Products From the ProHealth Store
Ultra ATP+, Double Strength Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® FibroSleep™

Looking for Vitamins, Herbs and Supplements?
Search the ProHealth Store for Hundreds of Natural Health Products


Article Comments



Be the first to comment on this article!

Post a Comment


 
NAD+ Ignite with Niagen

Featured Products

Ultra ATP+, Double Strength Ultra ATP+, Double Strength
Get energized with malic acid & magnesium
Energy NADH™ 12.5mg Energy NADH™ 12.5mg
Improve Energy & Cognitive Function
Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor®
Reduce Fatigue up to 45%
Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil Ultra EPA - Fish Oil
Ultra concentrated source of essential fish oils
Optimized Curcumin Longvida® Optimized Curcumin Longvida®
Supports Cognition, Memory & Overall Health

Natural Remedies

Front Line Defense Against Colds & Flu - Support for Healthy Immune System Balance Front Line Defense Against Colds & Flu - Support for Healthy Immune System Balance
The Fast-Acting Solution for Healthy Digestive Function The Fast-Acting Solution for Healthy Digestive Function
Live Without Anxiety or Stress Live Without Anxiety or Stress
Aching Muscles? Top 10 Nutrients to Take Back Your Life Aching Muscles? Top 10 Nutrients to Take Back Your Life
The Brain Boosting and Fatigue Fighting B-12 The Brain Boosting and Fatigue Fighting B-12

CONTACT US
ProHealth, Inc.
555 Maple Ave
Carpinteria, CA 93013
(800) 366-6056  |  Email

· Become a Wholesaler
· Vendor Inquiries
· Affiliate Program
SHOP WITH CONFIDENCE
Credit Card Processing
SUBSCRIBE TO OUR NEWSLETTERS
Get the latest news about Fibromyalgia, M.E/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Lyme Disease and Natural Wellness

CONNECT WITH US ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus

© 2017 ProHealth, Inc. All rights reserved. Pain Tracker App  |  Store  |  Customer Service  |  Guarantee  |  Privacy  |  Contact Us  |  Library  |  RSS  |  Site Map