ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Home  |  Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help
Facebook Google Plus
Fibromyalgia  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E.  Lyme Disease  Natural Wellness  Supplement News  Forums  Our Story
Store     Brands   |   A-Z Index   |   Best Sellers   |   New Products   |   Deals & Specials   |   Under $10   |   SmartSavings Club

Trending News

How Good Fats Prevent Heart Disease

Anti-inflammatory "No More Aches and Pains" Smoothie Bowl

The Bees' Best-Kept Secret: The Amazing Health Benefits of Propolis

Acupuncture: Why It Works

For women, healthy diets may help with mobility when aging

The Relationship Between Vitamin D and Insulin Resistance

High-Quality Whey Protein (in the Right Amounts) May Be Helpful for Weight Loss

8 Things to Consider for Depression

VIDEO: Living with Chronic Pain

Bone Broth Benefits for Digestion, Arthritis and Cellulite

 
Print Page
Email Article

Depressive Symptoms, Health Behaviors, and Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease – Source: JAMA, Nov 26, 2008

  [ 5 votes ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
By Mary A. Whooley, MD, et al. • www.ProHealth.com • December 3, 2008


[Coronary heart disease involves narrowing/stiffening of the vessels supplying blood & oxygen to the heart muscle and surrounding tissue. It’s the leading cause of death in the U.S. for both sexes.]

Context: Depressive symptoms predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease, but the mechanisms responsible for this association are unknown.

Objective: To determine why depressive symptoms are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events.

Design and Participants: The Heart and Soul Study is a prospective cohort study of 1017 outpatients with stable coronary heart disease followed up for a mean (SD) of 4.8 (1.4) years.

Setting: Participants were recruited between September 11, 2000, and December 20, 2002, from 12 outpatient clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area and were followed up to January 12, 2008.

Main Outcome Measures: Baseline depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). We used proportional hazards models to evaluate the extent to which the association of depressive symptoms with subsequent cardiovascular events (heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, or death) was explained by baseline disease severity and potential biological or behavioral mediators.

Results: A total of 341 cardiovascular events occurred during 4876 person-years of follow-up. The age-adjusted annual rate of cardiovascular events was 10.0% among the 199 participants with depressive symptoms (PHQ score 10) and 6.7% among the 818 participants without depressive symptoms (hazard ratio [HR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval, [CI], 1.16-1.95; P = .002).

After adjustment for comorbid conditions and disease severity, depressive symptoms were associated with a 31% higher rate of cardiovascular events (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.00-1.71; P = .04).

Additional adjustment for potential biological mediators attenuated this association (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.94-1.63; P = .12).

After further adjustment for potential behavioral mediators, including physical inactivity, there was no significant association (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.79-1.40; P = .75).

Conclusion: In this sample of outpatients with coronary heart disease, the association between depressive symptoms and adverse cardiovascular events was largely explained by behavioral factors, particularly physical inactivity.

Source: Journal of the American Medical Association, Nov 26, 2008; 300(20):2379-2388. PMID:, by Whooley MA, de Jonge P, Vittinghoff E, Otte C, Moos R, Carney RM, Ali S, Dowray S, Na B, Feldman MD, Schiller NB, Browner WS. VA Medical Center, San Francisco, California; University of California, San Francisco; University of Groningen and Tilburg University, the Netherlands; University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; Palo Alto VA Health Care System and Stanford University, California; Washington University, St Louis, Missouri; California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California. [E-mail: mary.whooley@ucsf.edu]





Post a Comment

Featured Products From the ProHealth Store
Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® Energy NADH™ 12.5mg Optimized Curcumin Longvida®

Looking for Vitamins, Herbs and Supplements?
Search the ProHealth Store for Hundreds of Natural Health Products


Article Comments



Be the first to comment on this article!

Post a Comment


 
Natural Pain Relief Supplements

Featured Products

FibroSleep™ FibroSleep™
The All-in-One Natural Sleep Aid
Energy NADH™ 12.5mg Energy NADH™ 12.5mg
Improve Energy & Cognitive Function
Optimized Curcumin Longvida® Optimized Curcumin Longvida®
Supports Cognition, Memory & Overall Health
Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil Ultra EPA - Fish Oil
Ultra concentrated source of essential fish oils
Ultra ATP+, Double Strength Ultra ATP+, Double Strength
Get energized with malic acid & magnesium

Natural Remedies

Soothe, Heal and Regulate Your Digestive System with Nutrient-Rich Aloe Vera Soothe, Heal and Regulate Your Digestive System with Nutrient-Rich Aloe Vera
Vitamin E: Super Antioxidant We Only Thought We Knew Vitamin E: Super Antioxidant We Only Thought We Knew
Block food Cravings At Their Molecular Root Block food Cravings At Their Molecular Root
Milk Thistle: Trusted Support for Health & Healing in a Toxic World Milk Thistle: Trusted Support for Health & Healing in a Toxic World
Clinically Studied Joint Relief Product for FM & ME/CFS Clinically Studied Joint Relief Product for FM & ME/CFS

CONTACT US
ProHealth, Inc.
555 Maple Ave
Carpinteria, CA 93013
(800) 366-6056  |  Email

· Become a Wholesaler
· Vendor Inquiries
· Affiliate Program
SHOP WITH CONFIDENCE
Credit Card Processing
SUBSCRIBE AND SAVE 15% NOW*
Be the first to know about new products, special discounts and the latest health news. *New subscribers only

CONNECT WITH US ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus

© 2016 ProHealth, Inc. All rights reserved. Pain Tracker App  |  Store  |  Customer Service  |  Guarantee  |  Privacy  |  Contact Us  |  Library  |  RSS  |  Site Map