ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Home  |  Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help
Facebook Google Plus
Fibromyalgia  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E.  Lyme Disease  Natural Wellness  Supplement News  Forums  Our Story
Store     Brands   |   A-Z Index   |   Best Sellers   |   New Products   |   Deals & Specials   |   Under $10   |   SmartSavings Club

Trending News

SURVEY: Weight Management & Chronic Illness

Japanese green tea consumers have reduced risk of dementia

Do Nothing, Accomplish Everything! The Connection Between Breathing and Healing

Meet the ProHealth Editors

Best Herbs to Help With Insomnia

Choline: Why You Should Eat Your Egg Yolks and Take Krill

Calcium, vitamin D supplementation associated improved stroke recovery

Acupressure reduced fatigue in breast cancer survivors

More positive evidence for melatonin in breast cancer battle

Omega-3 shows promise as stroke treatment

 
Print Page
Email Article

Two antibodies can prevent most HIV strains from infecting cells - NIH-led discoveries to advance HIV vaccines & antibody therapy for other diseases

  [ 93 votes ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
www.ProHealth.com • July 10, 2010


Scientists have discovered two potent human antibodies that can stop more than 90% of known global HIV strains from infecting human cells in the laboratory, and have demonstrated how one of these disease-fighting proteins accomplishes this feat.

According to the scientists:

• These antibodies could be used to design improved HIV vaccines, or could be further developed to prevent or treat HIV infection.

• Moreover, the method used to find these antibodies could be applied to isolate therapeutic antibodies for other infectious diseases as well.

“The discovery of these exceptionally broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV and the structural analysis that explains how they work are exciting advances that will accelerate our efforts to find a preventive HIV vaccine for global use,” says Anthony S. Fauci, MD, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health.

“In addition, the technique the teams used to find the new antibodies represents a novel strategy that could be applied to vaccine design for many other infectious diseases.”

Led by a team from the NIAID Vaccine Research Center (VRC), the scientists found two naturally occurring, powerful antibodies called VRC01 and VRC02 in an HIV infected individual's blood using a novel molecular device they developed that hones in on the specific cells that make antibodies against HIV.

The device is an HIV protein that the scientists modified so it would react only with antibodies specific to the site where the virus binds to cells it infects.

The scientists found that VRC01 and VRC02 neutralize more HIV strains with greater overall strength than previously known antibodies to the virus.

The researchers also determined the atomic-level structure of VRC01 when it is attaching to HIV. This has enabled the team to define how the antibody works and to precisely locate where it attaches to the virus. With this knowledge, they have begun to design components of a candidate vaccine that could teach the human immune system to make antibodies similar to VRC01 that might prevent infection by the vast majority of HIV strains worldwide. 

NIAID scientists Peter D. Kwong, PhD, John R. Mascola, MD, and Gary J. Nabel, MD, PhD, led the two research teams. A pair of articles about these findings was published online July 9 in Science.(1) “We have used our knowledge of the structure of a virus - in this case, the outer surface of HIV - to refine molecular tools that pinpoint the vulnerable spot on the virus and guide us to antibodies that attach to this spot, blocking the virus from infecting cells,” explains Dr. Nabel, the VRC director.

Finding individual antibodies that can neutralize HIV strains anywhere in the world has been difficult because the virus continuously changes its surface proteins to evade recognition by the immune system. As a consequence of these changes, an enormous number of HIV variants exist worldwide.

Even so, scientists have identified a few areas on HIV’s surface that remain nearly constant across all variants. One such area, located on the surface spikes used by HIV to attach to immune system cells and infect them, is called the CD4 binding site. VRC01 and VRC02 block HIV infection by attaching to the CD4 binding site, preventing the virus from latching onto immune cells. 

“The antibodies attach to a virtually unchanging part of the virus, and this explains why they can neutralize such an extraordinary range of HIV strains,” says Dr. Mascola, the deputy director of the VRC.

The Challenge of Vaccine Design

With these antibodies in hand, a team led by Dr. Kwong, chief of the structural biology section at the VRC, determined the atomic-level molecular structure of VRC01 when attached to the CD4 binding site. They then examined this structure in light of natural antibody development to ascertain the steps that would be needed to elicit a VRC01-like antibody through vaccination.

Antibody development begins with the mixing of genes into new combinations within the immune cells that make antibodies. Examination of the structure of VRC01 attached to HIV suggested that, from a genetic standpoint, the immune system likely could produce VRC01 precursors readily.

The researchers also confirmed that VRC01 does not bind to human cells - a characteristic that might otherwise lead to its elimination during immune development, a natural mechanism the body employs to prevent autoimmune disease. 

In the final stage of antibody development, antibody-producing B cells recognize specific parts of a pathogen and then mutate, or mature, so the antibody can bind to the pathogen more firmly. VRC01 precursors do not bind tightly to HIV, but rather mature extensively into more powerfully neutralizing forms. This extensive antibody maturation presents a challenge for vaccine design.

In their paper, Dr. Kwong and colleagues explore how this challenge might be addressed by designing vaccine components that could guide the immune system through this stepwise maturation process and facilitate the generation of a VRC01-like antibody from its precursors. The scientists currently are performing research to identify these components.

“The discoveries we have made may overcome the limitations that have long stymied antibody-based HIV vaccine design,” says Dr. Kwong.

The two research teams included NIAID scientists from the VRC, the Laboratory of Immunoregulation, and the Division of Clinical Research, all in Bethesda, Maryland; as well as researchers from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston; Columbia University in New York; Harvard Medical School and Harvard School of Public Health in Boston; The Rockefeller University in New York City; and University of Washington in Seattle.
____
1. References:
Wu X et al. “Rational design of envelope surface identifies broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1.” Science, Jul 9, 2010  

Zhou T et al. “Structural basis for broad and potent neutralization of HIV-1 by antibody VRC01.” Science, Jul 9, 2010

Source: National Institutes of Health news release, Jul 8, 2010




Post a Comment

Featured Products From the ProHealth Store
Energy NADH™ 12.5mg Vitamin D3 Extreme™ FibroSleep™

Looking for Vitamins, Herbs and Supplements?
Search the ProHealth Store for Hundreds of Natural Health Products


Article Comments



Be the first to comment on this article!

Post a Comment


 
Natural Pain Relief Supplements

Featured Products

Vitamin D3 Extreme™ Vitamin D3 Extreme™
50,000 IU Vitamin D3 - Prescription Strength
Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor®
Reduce Fatigue up to 45%
Optimized Curcumin Longvida® Optimized Curcumin Longvida®
Supports Cognition, Memory & Overall Health
Energy NADH™ 12.5mg Energy NADH™ 12.5mg
Improve Energy & Cognitive Function
Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil Ultra EPA - Fish Oil
Ultra concentrated source of essential fish oils

Natural Remedies

When a Negative is Positive - Goodnighties Recovery Sleepwear When a Negative is Positive - Goodnighties Recovery Sleepwear
Looking for Energy? Turn to Plants. Looking for Energy? Turn to Plants.
Enhance Eyelashes Naturally Enhance Eyelashes Naturally
Herbal Inflammation Management for Whole Body Health Herbal Inflammation Management for Whole Body Health
Running on Empty? Fuel Up with NADH Running on Empty? Fuel Up with NADH

CONTACT US
ProHealth, Inc.
555 Maple Ave
Carpinteria, CA 93013
(800) 366-6056  |  Email

· Become a Wholesaler
· Vendor Inquiries
· Affiliate Program
SHOP WITH CONFIDENCE
Credit Card Processing
SUBSCRIBE AND SAVE 15% NOW*
Be the first to know about new products, special discounts and the latest health news. *New subscribers only

CONNECT WITH US ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus

© 2016 ProHealth, Inc. All rights reserved. Pain Tracker App  |  Store  |  Customer Service  |  Guarantee  |  Privacy  |  Contact Us  |  Library  |  RSS  |  Site Map