ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Home  |  Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help
Facebook Google Plus
Fibromyalgia  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E.  Lyme Disease  Natural Wellness  Supplement News  Forums  Our Story
Store     Brands   |   A-Z Index   |   Best Sellers   |   New Products   |   Deals & Specials   |   Under $10   |   SmartSavings Club

Trending News

SURVEY: Cognitive Impairment II

Top 3 Nutrients to Detox the Liver and Soothe Digestion

Natural Bladder Control, Go Less and Live More

Top Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies — Are You at Risk?

Vital Molecule Increases Cellular Energy and Improves Cognitive Function

Omega Fix for Obesity: How the Right Fats Fight Fat

How Pomegranate May Protect Against Cancer

Trimming the spare tire: Canola oil may cut belly fat

The Onion: Cancer Fighter and Food Preserver

Safely Reduce a Common Cause of Stomach Distress

 
Print Page
Email Article

Education and incident Alzheimer's disease: a biased association due to selective attrition and use of a two-step diagnostic procedure?

  [ Not Yet Rated ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
By Geerlings MI, Schmand B, Jonker C, Lindeboom J, Bo • www.ProHealth.com • June 1, 1999


BACKGROUND: It is still not clear whether a low level of education increases the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Two common problems in cohort studies involving an elderly population and a two-step diagnostic procedure are the loss to follow-up without data on the presence of AD, and the fact that, in general, people with higher levels of education perform better on traditional cognitive tests, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Both phenomena may lead to misclassification, resulting in a biased association between level of education and AD. This study investigated to what extent these selection mechanisms may influence this association.

METHODS: In the community-based Amsterdam Study of the Elderly (AMSTEL) a cohort at risk for AD was selected of 3778 people aged 65-84 years. Level of education was expressed in two categories: low (primary education or less) versus high (partial secondary education to completed university education). At follow-up, a subsample of elderly people was selected for further diagnostic evaluation, using a memory test in addition to the MMSE. Clinical diagnoses of AD were made according to DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) criteria. To examine the extent to which loss to follow-up may have affected the results, a sensitivity analysis was performed comparing two extreme possibilities. Furthermore, to examine to what extent use of the MMSE only may have affected the results, the observed odds ratio (OR) was compared with the OR based on only those AD patients who were selected for diagnostics with the MMSE alone.

RESULTS: After an average of 3.2 years, 77 people had developed AD. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that a low level of education was associated with incident AD (OR adjusted for age and sex 2.09; 95% CI: 1.29-3.38). The results of the sensitivity analysis still indicated that a low level of education was associated with incident AD. Screening with only the MMSE led to a higher OR than the one observed.

CONCLUSION: Selective attrition and use of cognitive screening tests that are associated with educational level may influence the strength of the association between a low level of education and incident AD; however, it appears that these influences cannot completely explain this association.

Source: Int J Epidemiol 1999 Jun;28(3):492-7
PMID: 10405854, UI: 99334326

(Institute for Research in Extramural Medicine (EMGO Institute), Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam. MI.Geerlings@scw.vu.nl )




Post a Comment

Featured Products From the ProHealth Store
Vitamin D3 Extreme™ Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor®


Article Comments



Be the first to comment on this article!

Post a Comment


 
Natural Pain Relief Supplements

Featured Products

Optimized Curcumin Longvida® Optimized Curcumin Longvida®
Supports Cognition, Memory & Overall Health
Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor®
Reduce Fatigue up to 45%
Vitamin D3 Extreme™ Vitamin D3 Extreme™
50,000 IU Vitamin D3 - Prescription Strength
Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil Ultra EPA - Fish Oil
Ultra concentrated source of essential fish oils

Natural Remedies

A Hard-Working Molecule that May Help Ease Pain & Brighten Mood A Hard-Working Molecule that May Help Ease Pain & Brighten Mood
Strontium - The Missing Mineral for Strong Bones Strontium - The Missing Mineral for Strong Bones
Breaking Through the Mental Fog Breaking Through the Mental Fog
Soothe, Heal and Regulate Your Digestive System with Nutrient-Rich Aloe Vera Soothe, Heal and Regulate Your Digestive System with Nutrient-Rich Aloe Vera
When a Good Night's Sleep Is Just a Daydream... When a Good Night's Sleep Is Just a Daydream...

CONTACT US
ProHealth, Inc.
555 Maple Ave
Carpinteria, CA 93013
(800) 366-6056  |  Email

· Become a Wholesaler
· Vendor Inquiries
· Affiliate Program
SHOP WITH CONFIDENCE
Credit Card Processing
SUBSCRIBE TO OUR NEWSLETTERS
Get the latest news about Fibromyalgia, M.E/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Lyme Disease and Natural Wellness

CONNECT WITH US ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus

© 2016 ProHealth, Inc. All rights reserved. Pain Tracker App  |  Store  |  Customer Service  |  Guarantee  |  Privacy  |  Contact Us  |  Library  |  RSS  |  Site Map