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Magnesium + Malic Acid: One-Two Punch for Pain & Fatigue

  [ 190 votes ]   [ 23 Comments ]
By Karen Lee Richards* • • May 9, 2015

Magnesium + Malic Acid: One-Two Punch for Pain & Fatigue
A combination of magnesium and malic acid tops the list of recommendations for easing pain and fatigue, especially for those with fibromyalgia or ME/CFS.

Magnesium (Mg) is one of the most important nutrients required by our bodies. It is necessary for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body and is essential to human life. A few of magnesium's functions include:
  • Maintaining normal muscle and nerve function.
  • Keeping heart rhythm steady.
  • Supporting a healthy immune system.
  • Keeping bones strong.
  • Regulating blood sugar levels.
  • Promoting normal blood pressure.
  • Supporting energy metabolism and protein synthesis.(1)
Since our bodies don't produce this essential nutrient, it is critical that we replenish our supply of magnesium daily through diet and/or supplementation. 

According to a 1985 USDA survey, 75% to 85% of American adults consume less than the recommended daily amount of magnesium.(2)

Why We're Not Getting Enough Magnesium

One reason Americans tend to run low on magnesium is that we eat a lot of processed foods, which usually contain very little magnesium. Magnesium is mostly found in green vegetables, nuts and seeds, whole grains, some legumes, and – you're going to love this – chocolate. 

But wait - that's not the whole story.  What we gain by eating those magnesium-rich foods can be depleted by eating breads and pastas made from bleached and refined flour. Natural diuretics like coffee, tea and alcohol are also magnesium depleters.

A poor diet is not the only culprit, though. Another big reason so many people have a magnesium deficiency is that several commonly prescribed drugs strip our bodies of magnesium. These include oral contraceptives, estrogens, diuretics, corticosteroids, some diabetes drugs, and a number of antibiotics. 

A magnesium deficiency can be related to a surprising number of illnesses including fibromyalgia, ME/CFS, migraines, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, asthma, high blood pressure, heart disease and PMS. 

It can be difficult to detect a magnesium deficiency.

Most nutritional deficiencies can be revealed through a blood test. But because adequate serum levels of magnesium are essential for the heart to function properly, the body works overtime to maintain its blood serum Mg levels - at the expense of our cells and bones. So, even if a blood test shows normal serum magnesium levels, your cells, bones, and muscles may be severely deficient. 

Fibromyalgia and Magnesium Deficiency

Researchers have found that people with fibromyalgia are commonly deficient in magnesium. Therefore, it's not surprising that the symptoms of a magnesium deficiency are quite similar to many of the symptoms common to FM:
  • Insomnia
  • Fatigue
  • Irritability
  • Headaches
  • Muscle spasms and cramps
  • Poor memory
  • Confusion
  • Nervousness
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
Several of magnesium's functions are directly related to FM symptoms:

Magnesium is involved in the production of serotonin.  Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in regulating sleep cycles, pain perception, mood and the immune system. People with fibromyalgia typically have low serotonin levels, which can be related to the sleep disturbances, increased pain and mood problems they often experience.  

A magnesium deficiency can cause an increase of substance P.  Substance P is a neurotransmitter that serves as a pain messenger. People with fibromyalgia usually have exceptionally high levels of substance P, which can contribute to their hypersensitivity to pain. 

Magnesium activates adenosine triphosphate (ATP).  Energy is supplied to our bodies by the mitochondria in the form of ATP.  Researchers have found evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in fibromyalgia patients, which would result in the severe fatigue reported by most.(3) 

Fibromyalgia and Malic Acid Deficiency

Researchers have found that people with fibromyalgia have decreased levels of oxygen in their muscles, also known as muscle hypoxia. Biopsies of those muscles have shown muscle tissue breakdown, mitochondrial damage, and low levels of ATP, which helps explain the widespread muscle pain characteristic of FM. 

Evidence suggests that malic acid can help ease pain caused by muscle and tissue hypoxia. It allows the body to make ATP - and thereby energy - more efficiently, even under low oxygen or hypoxic conditions. Malic acid also enhances cellular stamina and endurance. (Malic acid is derived from food sources such as tart apples and is used/synthesized in the mitochondria as part of the ATP-producing citric acid or 'Krebs' cycle.)

As a team, malic acid and magnesium work together especially well to fight aluminum toxicity, which is thought to play a role in fibromyalgia. Malic acid acts as a potent aluminum detoxifier, while magnesium prevents future aluminum build-up. 

Magnesium and Malic Acid Combo Reduces FM Symptoms

In a 1992 study, 15 fibromyalgia patients were given 300-600 mg of magnesium and 1200-2400 mg of malic acid for periods of four and eight weeks.  Participants reported reductions in pain across a tender point index. Notably, six of the patients experienced improvement in 48 hours.(4)

A clinical trial conducted in 1995 tested a proprietary tablet containing 200 mg of malic acid and 50 mg of magnesium on 24 fibromyalgia patients. After taking three of the low-dose tablets twice a day for four weeks, participants noted no significant change in symptoms. However, when the doses were escalated (up to six tablets twice a day) for six months, they experienced significant reductions in the severity of pain and tenderness.(5) 

ME/CFS and Magnesium Deficiency

A 1991 case-control study found that 20 patients with ME/CFS had lower red cell magnesium concentrations than did 20 healthy matched control subjects. In the associated clinical trial, 32 ME/CFS patients received either placebo or intramuscular magnesium sulfate every week for six weeks.

The patients treated with magnesium reported having improved energy levels, a better emotional state, and less pain. Red cell magnesium returned to normal in all of the patients on supplemental magnesium, but in only one patient on placebo. The authors concluded that magnesium may have a role in ME/CFS.(6)

A number of leading ME/CFS specialists, including Daniel Peterson, MD, Jay Goldstein, MD, Jacob Teitelbaum, MD, Charles Lapp, MD, and Paul Cheney, MD, recommend a combination of malic acid and magnesium for muscle health and improved energy.

In his “From Fatigued to Fantastic” newsletter, Dr. Teitelbaum said, “Magnesium and malic acid are also critical. When malic acid and the other compounds are low, the body often has to shift to the very inefficient (anaerobic) means of generating energy. This contributes to the abnormal buildup of lactic acid that occurs after exercise in CFIDS/FM. This causes muscle achiness and fatigue."

How Much Magnesium/Malic Acid Should You Take?

Three of ProHealth's Double Strength Ultra ATP+ tablets contain 125 mg of magnesium and 1200 mg of malic acid - a very effective balance based on years of patient experience. The recommended starting dose is three tablets taken an hour before breakfast and at bedtime. The dosage can be gradually increased as needed.

Dr. Sarah Myhill says, “Magnesium is extremely safe by mouth – too much simply causes diarrhoea. Try increasing the amount of magnesium you take by mouth until it causes diarrhoea, then reduce the dose slightly so it does not. This is called taking magnesium to bowel tolerance...”(7)

Some people taking magnesium and malic acid have noticed symptom improvement in as little as 48 hours; however, it may take as much as four to six weeks.


Magnesium and malic acid are essential nutrients, yet most people are deficient in them. Their pain relieving, energy producing and mood stabilizing qualities can be particularly beneficial for people with fibromyalgia and ME/CFS.

* Supplement research writer Karen Lee Richards is the Lead Expert specializing in Fibromyalgia and ME/CFS, for HealthCentral's ChronicPainConnection. Karen is co-founder of the National Fibromyalgia Association (NFA) and was Executive Editor of Fibromyalgia AWARE magazine for four years.


1.  Wester PO. Magnesium. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987 May;45(5 Suppl):1305-12.  [There is a link to a full-text pdf on this abstract.]

2.  Morgan KJ, et al. Magnesium and calcium dietary intakes of the U.S. population. J Am Coll Nutr. 1985;4(2):195-206.

3.  Cordero MD, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy activation in blood mononuclear cells of fibromyalgia patients: Implications in the pathogenesis of the disease. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12(1):R17. Epub 2010 Jan 28.

4.  Abraham GE, Glechas ID. "Management of fibromyalgia: A rationale for the use of magnesium and malic acid." Journal of Nutritional Medicine,1992;3:49-59.

5.  Russell IJ, et al. Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome with Super Malic: A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, crossover pilot study. Journal of Rheumatology, 1995; 22:953-958.

6.  Cox IM, et al. Red blood cell magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome. Lancet. 1991 Mar 30;337(8744):757-60.

7.  Myhill, S. (2010, July 06). Magnesium – treating a deficiency


Note: This information has not been reviewed by the FDA. It is general information and is not intended to prevent, diagnose treat or cure any condition, illness, or disease. It is very important that you make no change in your healthcare plan or health support regimen without researching and discussing it in collaboration with your professional healthcare team.

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Article Comments Post a Comment

Posted by: Webmind
Feb 2, 2015
A little strange that most of the studies cited are 20-25 years old. What does that say about the current state of research for these diseases? We all need to get active and get the mainstream medical establishment to take this seriously and invest in our health.

Imagine if the $trillions wasted on the war in Iraq/Afghanistan had been put into CFS research. Probably would have a cure by now.
Reply Reply

I wish
Posted by: athena1953
Apr 1, 2015
I've been taking this and can't detect any difference in my pain or fatigue. Nothing at all helps me. I give up.
Reply Reply

magmesium & malic acid
Posted by: angel6113
Nov 22, 2017
I would recommend that you read the book by Dr. Jacob Teitelbaum called from Fatigued to Fantastic if you have not. Google his name since he also has a website where you can sign up for emails, fibro medical info and free webinar. I suffered from this for 7 long years and feel like a new person now. Something else that helped me very much was prayer by others and much time myself spent in prayer. I read the book Healed from Cancer written by Dodie Osteen. She was given 3 weeks to live since she was diagnosed with liver cancer several years ago. She is still alive today and is Joel Osteen's mother. I read the 40 healing scriptures in the book out loud each day for 7 years. The book of Proverbs says that God's words are life to your flesh and healing to your marrow. It also says in Prov. 18, life and death are in the power of the tongue. That is why reading the word of God out loud helps. I also found that watching Ken and Gloria Copeland, Benny Hinn & Creflo Dollar were very inspiring to me since they teach about healing on their tv shows as well as one their websites. Go to for the Copeland's website. God Bless You!


Which form of magnesium to take
Posted by: Photo1776Bill
Apr 1, 2015
Magnesium oxide is the cheapest form; it is also poorly absorbed so it's mostly a waste of money and depriving you of the magnesium you think you're getting. Any of the other chelates are fine -- I've been taking powdered (no additives used in making pills) magnesium citrate for years. In fact, it was the first supplement where I noticed an immediate reduction in fatigue -- most likely I, like most people, was deficient. While it is in the foods mentioned in the article, what they don't say is that the amounts are low (search "magnesium amounts food") with a few exceptions (e.g., 5 oz. of almonds or cooked spinach will provide 400 mg. -- the RDA for adults, although this, like many RDAs, may be set too low).
Reply Reply

Magnesium, in my experience
Posted by: yodecat
Apr 28, 2015
in either the citrate or the maleate forms causes crazy crapping. However, I feel much better overall taking the maleate form daily.
Reply Reply

Laxative vs. non-laxative forms of magnesium.
Posted by: dddiam
Jul 22, 2015
Here is a quote from the magnesiumcomaprison link in the above posting:

"RWM says:
Not all magnesium has laxative effects. The higher quality magnesium, such as magnesium glycinate, magnesium malate, and madgnesium taurate, do not have laxative effects. Other forms of magnesium, such as magnesium oxide and magnesium citrate, have laxative effects."


Various types of magnesium
Posted by: dddiam
Jul 22, 2015
There is a comprehensive list of various forms of magnesium, and the pros and cons of each, at
Reply Reply

Does taking them with green tea or coffee reduce their effectiveness?
Posted by: lsmiaka
Oct 24, 2015
I have seen here and elsewhere that tea is a magnesium depleter. Does taking it with either green tea or coffee in the morning therefore reduce its effectiveness? What about malic acid? I'd hate to try these remedies for fibromyalgia and render them useless. Thank you!
Reply Reply

Fibromyalgia and chronic migraines
Posted by: Fibromimi
Jan 8, 2016
Can anyone help me out on how much magnesium malate I should be taking?
So far ,been using ionic magnesium ,magnesium citrate,till I bought a new supplement of magnesium with malate,taurine,magnesium (glycinate)pyridoxal -5 phosphate and it seemed to help a little for my fibromyalgia.
Don't know which of these ingredients are working for the pain .
Reply Reply

Magnesium Citrate
Posted by: Lucky3782
Jan 11, 2016
I strongly believe that Magnesium Citrate is the most effective form of Magnesium. I'm currently taking this supplement and I'm seeing amazing results. This has really helped me with lots of different issues I was having. I feel like a person again since I started taking this supplement.
Reply Reply

fibromylagia and IBS
Posted by: pepperlove
May 11, 2016
I have been searching for a kind of magnesium which does not set off my IBS. I saw a homeopath and was prescribed a magnesium product. It set off a month of agonizing pain as if glass was grinding through my insides. I write this as one of the Dr. reviews, stated you cannot take too much, it will just give you diarrhea. If you have IBS, it can do much more than than. Just to give you feedback. I'm still looking for a good magnesium, because I have muscle cramps, which interfere with life and sleep. any thoughts?
Carin Fuerniss
Reply Reply

Magnesium Supplements/IBS
Posted by: angel6113
Nov 22, 2017
Have you tried Magnesium L-Threonate. I use this supplement and purchase it from I have IBS and this does not seem to cause diarrhea for me.


Metals poisoning
Posted by: CarolBuck
Apr 17, 2017
I have had fibromyalgia since May, 1995. I also had aluminum poisoning, literally off the chart. My fibro pain levels became so high that I felt as though I were on fire from the inside out. When the poisoning was finally diagnosed, I found that 400mg of magnesium and 1600mg of malic acid were recommended, together, until my aluminum levels were down to a tolerable level. I had to take those for over 1 1/2 years to rid my body of the high pain levels and much of the aluminum. Unfortunately, I still have a fairly high level of aluminum and will have to go back on the magnesium and malic acid. Have the patients in the article also been tested for metals poisoning? Also unfortunately, mercury poisoning (from having old mercury fillings removed all at once - doing it one at a time is the only safe way, despite all the dentists' precautions) cannot be treated with the magnesium and malic acid, but must be treated with slow (about 20 minutes) IV treatments by a physician with a special drug. It works to alleviate much of the pain as well, but takes years to complete. My energy levels are way up, and my pain levels are tolerable, thanks to ridding my body of so much aluminum.
Reply Reply

Magnesium and Malic Acid.
Posted by: angel6113
Nov 22, 2017
I read the book mentioned in the article, from Fatigued to fantastic by Dr. Teitelbaum. I did begin taking magnesium & malic acid as well as HTP and GABA dietary supplements. It certainly helped fibromyalgia.
Reply Reply

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