ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Home  |  Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help
Facebook Google Plus
Fibromyalgia  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E.  Lyme Disease  Natural Wellness  Supplement News  Forums  Our Story
Store     Brands   |   A-Z Index   |   Best Sellers   |   New Products   |   Deals & Specials   |   Under $10   |   SmartSavings Club

Trending News

Fighting Heartburn and Gerd Naturally – And Safely!

Vital Molecule Increases Cellular Energy and Improves Cognitive Function

Natural Bladder Control, Go Less and Live More

Top Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies — Are You at Risk?

Trimming the spare tire: Canola oil may cut belly fat

How Pomegranate May Protect Against Cancer

Omega Fix for Obesity: How the Right Fats Fight Fat

Curcumin Reverses the Cellular Damage of Chronic Stress

Probiotics improve cognition in Alzheimer's patients

The Onion: Cancer Fighter and Food Preserver

 
Print Page
Email Article

Interleukin-1beta activates forebrain glial cells and increases nitric oxide production and cortical glutamate and GABA release in vivo: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

  [ Not Yet Rated ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
By Casamenti F, Prosperi C, Scali C, Giovannelli L, C • www.ProHealth.com • November 1, 1999


Interleukin-1beta (10 U) was injected into the nucleus basalis of adult male Wistar rats. The inflammation-induced changes in glial cell morphology and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the injected area, the release of acetylcholine, GABA and glutamate from the ipsilateral cortex, the production of nitrite levels in the injected area and ipsilateral cortex, and changes in motor activity were investigated. Saline-injected rats were used as control.

Interleukin-1beta induced an activation of both microglia and astrocytes which was already evident 24 h after injection. Seven days after injection, many reactive microglial cells and astrocytes were seen in the injected area and in other brain regions of the same hemisphere. Microglia reaction, but not astrocyte activation, disappeared 30 days post-injection.

Seven days after interleukin-1beta injection, many cells immunopositive for inducible nitric oxide synthase were found surrounding the injection site. Inducible nitric oxide synthase-positive cells were identified, by double staining immunohistochemistry, in the reactive microglial cells and, by electron microscope examination, in the perineuronal subpopulation of resident activated microglia.

Microdialysis investigations revealed a transient increase in reactive nitrogen intermediates (at seven days post-injection), a delayed (at 30 days post-injection) increase in GABA and glutamate release, and no changes in acetylcholine release in the ipsilateral cortex in interleukin-1beta, but not saline, injected rats. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester administration prevented the increase in nitrogen intermediates and GABA release, but not in glutamate release.

Our findings suggest that an inflammatory reaction of the basal forebrain facilitates GABA release through the production of nitric oxide.

Source: Neuroscience 1999;91(3):831-42
PMID: 10391466, UI: 99318350

(Department of Pharmacology, University of Florence, Italy. )




Post a Comment

Featured Products From the ProHealth Store
Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® FibroSleep™ Ultra ATP+, Double Strength


Article Comments



Be the first to comment on this article!

Post a Comment


 
Natural Pain Relief Supplements

Featured Products

Optimized Curcumin Longvida® Optimized Curcumin Longvida®
Supports Cognition, Memory & Overall Health
Vitamin D3 Extreme™ Vitamin D3 Extreme™
50,000 IU Vitamin D3 - Prescription Strength
Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor®
Reduce Fatigue up to 45%
FibroSleep™ FibroSleep™
The All-in-One Natural Sleep Aid

Natural Remedies

Mitochondria-Booster NIAGEN® Shows Promise in First Human Clinical Trial Mitochondria-Booster NIAGEN® Shows Promise in First Human Clinical Trial
Optimize Your Immune System Naturally: Thymic Protein A Optimize Your Immune System Naturally: Thymic Protein A
Block Acid Reflux to Prevent Esophageal Problems! Block Acid Reflux to Prevent Esophageal Problems!
Strengthen Cell Function with Energy-Boosting Niagen Strengthen Cell Function with Energy-Boosting Niagen
Sleep Like a Baby in Nature's Cradle Sleep Like a Baby in Nature's Cradle

CONTACT US
ProHealth, Inc.
555 Maple Ave
Carpinteria, CA 93013
(800) 366-6056  |  Email

· Become a Wholesaler
· Vendor Inquiries
· Affiliate Program
SHOP WITH CONFIDENCE
Credit Card Processing
SUBSCRIBE TO OUR NEWSLETTERS
Get the latest news about Fibromyalgia, M.E/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Lyme Disease and Natural Wellness

CONNECT WITH US ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus

© 2016 ProHealth, Inc. All rights reserved. Pain Tracker App  |  Store  |  Customer Service  |  Guarantee  |  Privacy  |  Contact Us  |  Library  |  RSS  |  Site Map