ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Home  |  Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help
Facebook Google Plus
Fibromyalgia  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E.  Lyme Disease  Natural Wellness  Supplement News  Forums  Our Story
Store     Brands   |   A-Z Index   |   Best Sellers   |   New Products   |   Deals & Specials   |   Under $10   |   SmartSavings Club

Trending News

Meta-analysis adds evidence to association between omega-3 supplementation and lower heart rate

Friendly User's Guide for the Timing of Nutritional Supplements

The Health Benefits of Manuka Honey

Increase Your Magnesium Intake

Love Your Lungs With Tomatoes and Apples

How to Get Rid of Stretch Marks Naturally

Top Tips to Boost Your Immunity

Essential Oils Lower Blood Pressure

Vitamin D supplementation could ease IBS symptoms

11 Amazing Health Benefits of Using Baking Soda

Print Page
Email Article

Relapsing fever spirochetes retain infectivity after prolonged in vitro cultivation.

  [ Not Yet Rated ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
By Lopez JE, Schrumpf ME, Raffel SJ, Policastro PF, Porcella SF, Schwan TG • • December 1, 2008


Borrelia hermsii and Borrelia burgdorferi, two closely related spirochetes, are the etiological agents of tick-borne relapsing fever and Lyme disease, respectively. Previous studies have shown the loss of infectivity of B. burgdorferi is associated with in vitro cultivation. This diminished infectivity of B. burgdorferi has occurred as early as three in vitro passages, and the loss of plasmids have been observed with these less virulent to noninfective cultures. The effects of long-term in vitro cultivation on B. hermsii have not been investigated. However, understanding the degree of genomic degradation during in vitro cultivation is important for investigating pathogenic mechanisms of spirochetes. In this study, we analyzed the effects of continuous in vitro cultivation on the genomic composition and infectivity of B. hermsii and B. turicatae.We report that all seven isolates of B. hermsii and the one isolate of B. turicatae examined retained infectivity in mice after 1 year of continuous in vitro cultivation. Furthermore, there were few apparent differences in the plasmid profiles after long-term cultivation. Two isolates of B. hermsii remained infective after high passage despite losing a portion of the 200-kb linear plasmid containing the fhbA gene encoding the factor H binding protein. Also, sequence analysis of multiple B. hermsii isolates demonstrated two types of fhbA with complete congruence with the two genomic groups of B. hermsii spirochetes. Therefore, these results suggest that relapsing fever spirochetes are genetically stable during in vitro cultivation, and the fhbA-containing segment of DNA that is lost during cultivation is not required for infection.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008 Dec;8(6):813-20. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2008.0033. Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

Post a Comment

Featured Products From the ProHealth Store
Energy NADH™ 12.5mg Vitamin D3 Extreme™ FibroSleep™

Article Comments

Be the first to comment on this article!

Post a Comment

Optimized Curcumin Longvida with Omega-3

Featured Products

Optimized Curcumin Longvida® Optimized Curcumin Longvida®
Supports Cognition, Memory & Overall Health
Ultra ATP+, Double Strength Ultra ATP+, Double Strength
Get Energized with Malic Acid & Magnesium
Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil Ultra EPA - Fish Oil
Ultra concentrated source of essential fish oils
Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor®
Reduce Fatigue up to 45%
FibroSleep™ FibroSleep™
The All-in-One Natural Sleep Aid

Natural Remedies

Strontium - The Missing Mineral for Strong Bones Strontium - The Missing Mineral for Strong Bones
Help for Soreness and Swelling: What Do Silkworms Have to Do With It? Help for Soreness and Swelling: What Do Silkworms Have to Do With It?
The Brain Boosting and Fatigue Fighting B-12 The Brain Boosting and Fatigue Fighting B-12
How One Tiny Molecule Turned into One Huge Health Breakthrough How One Tiny Molecule Turned into One Huge Health Breakthrough
Magnesium + Malic Acid: One-Two Punch for Pain & Fatigue Magnesium + Malic Acid: One-Two Punch for Pain & Fatigue

ProHealth, Inc.
555 Maple Ave
Carpinteria, CA 93013
(800) 366-6056  |  Email

· Become a Wholesaler
· Vendor Inquiries
· Affiliate Program
Credit Card Processing
Get the latest news about Fibromyalgia, M.E/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Lyme Disease and Natural Wellness

CONNECT WITH US ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus

© 2018 ProHealth, Inc. All rights reserved. Pain Tracker App  |  Store  |  Customer Service  |  Guarantee  |  Privacy  |  Contact Us  |  Library  |  RSS  |  Site Map