ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Home  |  Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help
Facebook Google Plus
Fibromyalgia  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E.  Lyme Disease  Natural Wellness  Supplement News  Forums  Our Story
Store     Brands   |   A-Z Index   |   Best Sellers   |   New Products   |   Deals & Specials   |   Under $10   |   SmartSavings Club

Trending News

Fighting Heartburn and Gerd Naturally – And Safely!

Vital Molecule Increases Cellular Energy and Improves Cognitive Function

Natural Bladder Control, Go Less and Live More

Top Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies — Are You at Risk?

Trimming the spare tire: Canola oil may cut belly fat

How Pomegranate May Protect Against Cancer

Omega Fix for Obesity: How the Right Fats Fight Fat

Curcumin Reverses the Cellular Damage of Chronic Stress

Probiotics improve cognition in Alzheimer's patients

The Onion: Cancer Fighter and Food Preserver

 
Print Page
Email Article

Study Shows Men who Smoke Have Greater Risk of Developing Rheumatoid Arthritis

  [ 96 votes ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
www.ProHealth.com • March 26, 2003


New research from Stanford University, published in the March 2003 issue of Arthritis Research & Therapy, investigates the complex interactions between smoking and rheumatoid arthritis in men and women. The controlled study of 2,625 people showed a past history of smoking increased the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis in men. However, female smokers did not have a greater risk of developing arthritis.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) occurs when the body's immune system attacks the joints leaving sufferers in severe pain and with reduced mobility. It affects about two million people in the USA alone and is two to three times more common in women than in men. The causes of RA are poorly understood; but a number of factors are associated with an increased risk of developing the disease, such as obesity, diet, age and a history of smoking.

Women's increased risk of developing RA is partly due to them outliving men, but this does not fully explain the differences in susceptibility to the disease. Previous studies have suggested that female sex hormones play a role in developing RA and factors such as taking the contraceptive pill and terminating pregnancies are also thought to increase the risk. Given the gender-specific risks, Eswar Krishnan from Stanford University and his colleagues devised a survey to analyze men and women to see what effect smoking had on their chances of developing rheumatoid arthritis.

The researchers' study was case controlled, which means patients with RA were compared to healthy subjects. Data on age, height and education were collected, as well as details of gender and smoking habits to allow the researchers to discount other factors that may affect the risk of developing arthritis.

Initial analysis of their data revealed smoking was only a risk factor for developing RA in men. To further investigate these differences the researchers examined the levels of rheumatoid factor found in their patients. Rheumatoid factor is a rogue antibody found in 80% of RA sufferers and is thought to stimulate the body's immune system to attack the membranes around the joints. Smoking is associated with the production of rheumatoid factor, so it is not surprising that it should increase the risk of developing RA. However this study suggests that pre-menopausal women block this pathway, effectively knocking out the effect of smoking.

The results of this study uncover interesting differences between the susceptibility of men and women to the disease. The authors recognize the need for further research on the interactions between smoking, rheumatoid arthritis and gender if we are to reduce the number of people suffering from this debilitating disease.



Post a Comment

Featured Products From the ProHealth Store
Vitamin D3 Extreme™ Energy NADH™ 12.5mg FibroSleep™


Article Comments



Be the first to comment on this article!

Post a Comment


 
Natural Pain Relief Supplements

Featured Products

Energy NADH™ 12.5mg Energy NADH™ 12.5mg
Improve Energy & Cognitive Function
FibroSleep™ FibroSleep™
The All-in-One Natural Sleep Aid
Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil Ultra EPA - Fish Oil
Ultra concentrated source of essential fish oils
Vitamin D3 Extreme™ Vitamin D3 Extreme™
50,000 IU Vitamin D3 - Prescription Strength
Ultra ATP+, Double Strength Ultra ATP+, Double Strength
Get energized with malic acid & magnesium

Natural Remedies

Vitamin K-2 – A Key Player in Cardiovascular and Bone Health Vitamin K-2 – A Key Player in Cardiovascular and Bone Health
Undenatured Type II Collagen - Chicken Soup for Your Joints Undenatured Type II Collagen - Chicken Soup for Your Joints
Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Tart Cherry Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Tart Cherry
Running on Empty? Fuel Up with NADH Running on Empty? Fuel Up with NADH
Three-Step Strategy to Reverse Mitochondrial Aging Three-Step Strategy to Reverse Mitochondrial Aging

CONTACT US
ProHealth, Inc.
555 Maple Ave
Carpinteria, CA 93013
(800) 366-6056  |  Email

· Become a Wholesaler
· Vendor Inquiries
· Affiliate Program
SHOP WITH CONFIDENCE
Credit Card Processing
SUBSCRIBE TO OUR NEWSLETTERS
Get the latest news about Fibromyalgia, M.E/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Lyme Disease and Natural Wellness

CONNECT WITH US ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus

© 2016 ProHealth, Inc. All rights reserved. Pain Tracker App  |  Store  |  Customer Service  |  Guarantee  |  Privacy  |  Contact Us  |  Library  |  RSS  |  Site Map