ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Home  |  Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help
Facebook Google Plus
Fibromyalgia  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E.  Lyme Disease  Natural Wellness  Supplement News  Forums  Our Story
Store     Brands   |   A-Z Index   |   Best Sellers   |   New Products   |   Deals & Specials   |   Under $10   |   SmartSavings Club

Trending News

Meta-analysis adds evidence to association between omega-3 supplementation and lower heart rate

Friendly User's Guide for the Timing of Nutritional Supplements

The Health Benefits of Manuka Honey

Increase Your Magnesium Intake

Love Your Lungs With Tomatoes and Apples

How to Get Rid of Stretch Marks Naturally

Top Tips to Boost Your Immunity

Essential Oils Lower Blood Pressure

Vitamin D supplementation could ease IBS symptoms

11 Amazing Health Benefits of Using Baking Soda

 
Print Page
Email Article

Pathogenesis of neuroborreliosis--lessons from a monkey model.

  [ 1 vote ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
By Pachner AR, Schaefer H, Amemiya K, Cadavid D, Zhang WF, Reddy K, O'Neill T • www.ProHealth.com • December 23, 1998


Abstract

The diagnosis of human LNB can be difficult, because its major clinical manifestations--meningitis, facial palsy, radiculitis, and neuritis--are non-specific and the characteristic skin lesion is usually absent at the time of neurological involvement. Thus, CSF assays are often used in diagnosis. Culture of CSF is rarely performed because it has a low yield and requires special culture medium. PCR of the CSF identified spirochetal DNA in clinical specimens with greater sensitivity, but it suffers from a number of disadvantages. Measurement of specific antibody in the CSF also has its limitations. The role of available assays for LNB has not been studied carefully in a comparative investigation. The recent development of the nonhumane primate (NHP) model of LNB allows us to address this need in a faithful model of human LNB. We compared PCR and culture in their ability to detect spirochetal presence in the CSF and brain tissue of infected NHPs, and related these measures of infection to the development of anti-B. burgdorferi antibody. We also tested a bioassay, the mouse infectivity test (MIT), in this model. Using these four assays (PCR, culture, MIT, and CSF Ab) at least one assay for spirochetal presence in CSFs from NHPs was positive in 87% of CSFs tested during early infection in the CNS. Detection of spirochetal presence by PCR, MIT, and culture in the CSF was inversely related to the concomitant presence of anti-B. burgdorferi antibody intrathecally. The performance of any particular test was associated with the strength of the host immune response. In early CNS infection, when anti-B. burgdorferi antibody had not yet appeared, or in immunocompromised hosts, the MIT compared favorably to culture and PCR in infected NHPs; antibody in the CSF was the most useful assay in immunocompetent NHPs. This is the first study demonstrating that a bioassay using inoculation of mice, the mouse infectivity test (MIT), has potential as a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of LNB. The MIT for LNB was modeled after the rabbit infectivity test or RIT, which is considered the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of the related CNS infection, neurosyphilis, and felt to be very sensitive and specific. The presence of specific anti-B. burgdorferi antibody in the CSF is the most widely used assay for Lyme neuroborreliosis. In the immunocompetent NHPs in our study it was a very successful assay for detection of CNS invasion. However, it is frequently false-negative, especially early in the course of the infection, or if there is transient immunosuppression. Transient suppression of the anti-B. burgdorferi immune response in the human could occur in instances of co-infection, i.e. simultaneous transmission via the tick of another pathogen other than B. burgdorferi. Thus, mild immunosuppression as accomplished in our NHPs with corticosteroids was designed to mimic conditions in the human host which allow B. burgdorferi in the natural state to gain a firm foothold in the central nervous system in the 10-15% of B. burgdorferi-infected patients who develop clinically symptomatic nervous system disease. This study is the first to compare utility of available diagnostic techniques in LNB in which necropsy proved presence of infection in the CNS. None of the assays was ideal for all conditions, and the utility of the assay was associated with the host immune status. The differences in the responses of immunocompromised and immunocompetent NHPs in this study were striking. In immunocompetent NHPs the window of opportunity for CNS invasion prior to the development of CSF antibody was brief, and the chance of detection of spirochete low by any of the three techniques used (i.e. culture, PCR, or MIT); in this group, measurement of CSF antibody was generally diagnostic. In immunocompromised NHPs, intrathecal antibody production was delayed, and this helpful diagnostic assay was false-negative; diagnosis required more labor-intensive assays such as PCR, culture, an

Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1998 Dec 23;110(24):870-3. Review





Post a Comment

Featured Products From the ProHealth Store
Vitamin D3 Extreme™ Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor®


Article Comments



Be the first to comment on this article!

Post a Comment


 
Optimized Curcumin Longvida with Omega-3

Featured Products

Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor®
Reduce Fatigue up to 45%
Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil Ultra EPA - Fish Oil
Ultra concentrated source of essential fish oils
Optimized Curcumin Longvida® Optimized Curcumin Longvida®
Supports Cognition, Memory & Overall Health
FibroSleep™ FibroSleep™
The All-in-One Natural Sleep Aid
Ultra ATP+, Double Strength Ultra ATP+, Double Strength
Get Energized with Malic Acid & Magnesium

Natural Remedies

Breaking Through the Mental Fog Breaking Through the Mental Fog
Can Pomegranates Slow Aging? Can Pomegranates Slow Aging?
Physically and Mentally Exhausted? How to Restore Energy at Its Source Physically and Mentally Exhausted? How to Restore Energy at Its Source
Milk Thistle: Trusted Support for Health & Healing in a Toxic World Milk Thistle: Trusted Support for Health & Healing in a Toxic World
Improve Cardiovascular and Metabolic Health with Omega-7 Improve Cardiovascular and Metabolic Health with Omega-7

CONTACT US
ProHealth, Inc.
555 Maple Ave
Carpinteria, CA 93013
(800) 366-6056  |  Email

· Become a Wholesaler
· Vendor Inquiries
· Affiliate Program
SHOP WITH CONFIDENCE
Credit Card Processing
SUBSCRIBE TO OUR NEWSLETTERS
Get the latest news about Fibromyalgia, M.E/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Lyme Disease and Natural Wellness

CONNECT WITH US ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus

© 2018 ProHealth, Inc. All rights reserved. Pain Tracker App  |  Store  |  Customer Service  |  Guarantee  |  Privacy  |  Contact Us  |  Library  |  RSS  |  Site Map