ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Home  |  Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help
Facebook Google Plus
Fibromyalgia  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E.  Lyme Disease  Natural Wellness  Supplement News  Forums  Our Story
Store     Brands   |   A-Z Index   |   Best Sellers   |   New Products   |   Deals & Specials   |   Under $10   |   SmartSavings Club

Trending News

Friendly User's Guide for the Timing of Nutritional Supplements

The Health Benefits of Manuka Honey

Increase Your Magnesium Intake

Vitamin D supplementation could ease IBS symptoms

Top Tips to Boost Your Immunity

11 Amazing Health Benefits of Using Baking Soda

Nicotinamide riboside shows promise for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

Exercise, calcium, vitamin D, and other factors linked with fewer injurious falls

Vitamin D3 Is a Powerhouse for Your Heart

Curcumin Supplementation May Impart Long-Term Cognitive Benefits

 
Print Page
Email Article

Demonstration of cotranscription and 1-methyl-3-nitroso-nitroguanidine induction of a 30-gene operon of Borrelia burgdorferi: evidence that the 32-kilobase circular plasmids are prophages.

  [ Not Yet Rated ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
By Zhang H, Marconi RT • www.ProHealth.com • December 1, 2005


Abstract

The Borrelia genome is comprised of linear and circular elements, including a group of 32-kb circular plasmids (cp32s). Earlier analyses identified a bacteriophage, varphiBB-1, that may package cp32s, suggesting that these plasmids are prophages. cp32-8, cp32-9, and cp32-1 (plasmids L, N, and P, respectively) encode virulence factors such as the factor H binding, OspE proteins (BBL39, BBN38, and BBP38). Here the expression patterns of cp32-8 open reading frames (ORFs) in in vitro-cultivated 1-methyl-3-nitroso-nitroguanidine (MNNG)-treated and untreated spirochetes and during infection were assessed. ORFs BBL42 through BBL28, which encode several bacteriophage protein homologs, were found to be cotranscribed and expression was upregulated by MNNG. Immunoblotting revealed that MNNG-induced transcription led to increased protein production. The expression of several genes that reside outside of the BBL42-BBL28 operon was not affected by MNNG. Some of these genes, including OspE (BBL39), appear to represent morons. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR of spirochetes in mouse tissue revealed that although the phage operon was not induced during infection, transcription of BBL23 (previously designated BlyA), a putative holin, was upregulated. This observation indicates that some genes within the operon can be independently transcribed from internal promoters. Additional transcriptional analyses of the operon identified multiple transcriptional start sites and provided evidence for the expression of a homologous operon from other cp32s. The data support the hypothesis put forth by C. Eggers and D. S. Samuels (J. Bacteriol. 181:7308-7313, 1999) that the cp32s are prophages, a finding with broad implications for our understanding of Borrelia pathogenesis and Borrelia genome evolution.

J Bacteriol. 2005 Dec;187(23):7985-95.





Post a Comment

Featured Products From the ProHealth Store
Energy NADH™ 12.5mg Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil FibroSleep™


Article Comments



Be the first to comment on this article!

Post a Comment


 
Optimized Curcumin Longvida with Omega-3

Featured Products

Optimized Curcumin Longvida® Optimized Curcumin Longvida®
Supports Cognition, Memory & Overall Health
Ultra ATP+, Double Strength Ultra ATP+, Double Strength
Get Energized with Malic Acid & Magnesium
Energy NADH™ 12.5mg Energy NADH™ 12.5mg
Improve Energy & Cognitive Function
Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil Ultra EPA - Fish Oil
Ultra concentrated source of essential fish oils
FibroSleep™ FibroSleep™
The All-in-One Natural Sleep Aid

Natural Remedies

How to Jump-start and Sustain Energy Production in CFS How to Jump-start and Sustain Energy Production in CFS
Can Glycine + Amino Acids Be the Secret to Deep, Rejuvenating Sleep? Can Glycine + Amino Acids Be the Secret to Deep, Rejuvenating Sleep?
Improve Cardiovascular and Metabolic Health with Omega-7 Improve Cardiovascular and Metabolic Health with Omega-7
Natural Relief for Soreness, Pain and Swelling - Putting Out the Fire Natural Relief for Soreness, Pain and Swelling - Putting Out the Fire
The Guaifenesin Story: A centuries-old bark extract used for clearing the airways – now key to a popular FM symptom-reversal protocol The Guaifenesin Story: A centuries-old bark extract used for clearing the airways – now key to a popular FM symptom-reversal protocol

CONTACT US
ProHealth, Inc.
555 Maple Ave
Carpinteria, CA 93013
(800) 366-6056  |  Email

· Become a Wholesaler
· Vendor Inquiries
· Affiliate Program
SHOP WITH CONFIDENCE
Credit Card Processing
SUBSCRIBE TO OUR NEWSLETTERS
Get the latest news about Fibromyalgia, M.E/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Lyme Disease and Natural Wellness

CONNECT WITH US ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus

© 2018 ProHealth, Inc. All rights reserved. Pain Tracker App  |  Store  |  Customer Service  |  Guarantee  |  Privacy  |  Contact Us  |  Library  |  RSS  |  Site Map