ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Home  |  Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help
Facebook Google Plus
Fibromyalgia  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E.  Lyme Disease  Natural Wellness  Supplement News  Forums  Our Story
Store     Brands   |   A-Z Index   |   Best Sellers   |   New Products   |   Deals & Specials   |   Under $10   |   SmartSavings Club

Trending News

15 Health Benefits of Chia Seeds, According to Science

Tangerine Oil: A Citrusy Essential Oil With Well-Rounded Uses

Natural Remedies for the Prevention of Dry Eyes

Magnesium Deficiency Raises Your Risk of Many Chronic Ailments

Resveratrol supplementation improves arterial stiffness in type 2 diabetics

CoQ10's Potential Capabilities for Your Health

How Can Melatonin Benefit You?

Cloves: Boost Your Immune System the Sweet and Spicy Way

8 Chia Seed Recipes

Testosterone replacement therapy associated with improved urinary, sexual function

 
Print Page
Email Article

Etiology of Alzheimer’s Disease

  [ 5 votes ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
By Report by the AD Educ & Referral Ctr • www.ProHealth.com • March 21, 1999


Dr. Dennis Selkoe, professor of neurology and neuroscience at Harvard Medical School, provided journalists with a detailed overview of the etiology and mechanisms of the disease. He described how the abnormal protein structures of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are recognized as the hallmarks of the disease. The science of Alzheimer’s disease, building on this characterization, has focused on three major research questions–the causes of the disease, the mechanisms of brain cell death, and the types of brain cells that are affected and subsequently die.

A great deal of recent research into the cause of AD has focused on how the abnormal plaques and tangles are formed in the brain in the first place, Dr. Selkoe said. He explained how the plaques consist of fragments (beta-amyloid) of amyloid precursor protein, or APP. Over the years, research has revealed how APP is made, metabolized, and broken down by enzymes that cut it in certain places. Specifically, some of these enzymes destroy beta-amyloid while others clip out either a short form of beta-amyloid (A-beta 1-40) or a longer, more "sticky" form (A-beta 1-42). Dr. Selkoe then described to the group the link between genetic mutations and formation of beta-amyloid fragments, showing the journalists how mutations found in the APP gene in early-onset families, for example, appear to increase the amount of total beta-amyloid or of A-beta 1-42. He also discussed the role of presenilins and APOE in helping form more amyloid.

This body of research suggests that the deposition of beta-amyloid into plaques is the primary event in AD, triggering a "cascade" of downstream changes in the brain, Dr. Selkoe said. These include the development of neurofibrillary tangles, inflammation, generation of free radicals, the death of brain cells and loss of their ability to communicate. Scientists are actively investigating each part of this cascade. Laboratories such as Selkoe’s and others "went to work to find out how these genes did their dirty work," he noted, detailing his group’s findings that presenilin mutations, for example, "crank up" the production of A-beta 1-42.

Investigations of these mechanisms have led to a number of "exciting, therapeutic possibilities," according to Dr. Selkoe. He and his colleagues, for example, are seeking ways to interfere in the processes by which APP is clipped to form beta-amyloid and how beta-amyloid aggregates into plaques, as well as examining how beta-amyloid in plaques can be harmlessly broken down. One very new finding, he reported, involves the effectiveness of insulin degrading enzyme, or IDE, in breaking down A-beta 1-40 and A-beta 1-42.

Scientists are zeroing in as well on the protein tau, which is the protein constituent of neurofibrillary tangles, he said. Additional research is examining therapies that might address some of the other downstream events associated with AD–testing anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce inflammation, antioxidants to mop up free radicals and prevent their damage, and protective agents such as estrogen and growth factors to fight neuron dysfunction and death.

Another currently exciting development in this field is the use of transgenic mice as bioassay tools. These mice, bred to carry various combinations of human genes linked to AD, are being used to test theories about the etiology of AD. Dr. Selkoe suggested that in addition to enabling scientists to explore, for example, whether amyloid plaques themselves are a cause of neurodegeneration or are a byproduct of the disease process, these mouse models are a powerful tool for testing the effectiveness of drugs to slow the progress of the disease. Mouse models for AD are already helping to unravel how the disease can be triggered and modulated by a complex interplay of different genes, Dr. Selkoe said. He expressed optimism that analyzing the different mouse strains could lead to the identification of new genes that may modify the AD process.

Source: Connections Magazine [Volume 8(1), Spring 1999]



Post a Comment

Featured Products From the ProHealth Store
Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® FibroSleep™ Energy NADH™ 12.5mg


Article Comments



Be the first to comment on this article!

Post a Comment


 
Optimized Curcumin Longvida with Omega-3

Featured Products

Vitamin D3 Extreme™ Vitamin D3 Extreme™
50,000 IU Vitamin D3 - Prescription Strength
Ultra ATP+, Double Strength Ultra ATP+, Double Strength
Get energized with malic acid & magnesium
Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor®
Reduce Fatigue up to 45%
Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil Ultra EPA - Fish Oil
Ultra concentrated source of essential fish oils

Natural Remedies

Eating Fat is Good... Maybe... Could Be... Sometimes Eating Fat is Good... Maybe... Could Be... Sometimes
Complete and Natural Menopause Relief Complete and Natural Menopause Relief
Coping When Colds or Flu Catch Up with You Coping When Colds or Flu Catch Up with You
The Remarkable Benefits of Reishi Medicinal Mushrooms The Remarkable Benefits of Reishi Medicinal Mushrooms
Physically and Mentally Exhausted? How to Restore Energy at Its Source Physically and Mentally Exhausted? How to Restore Energy at Its Source

CONTACT US
ProHealth, Inc.
555 Maple Ave
Carpinteria, CA 93013
(800) 366-6056  |  Email

· Become a Wholesaler
· Vendor Inquiries
· Affiliate Program
SHOP WITH CONFIDENCE
Credit Card Processing
SUBSCRIBE TO OUR NEWSLETTERS
Get the latest news about Fibromyalgia, M.E/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Lyme Disease and Natural Wellness

CONNECT WITH US ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus

© 2017 ProHealth, Inc. All rights reserved. Pain Tracker App  |  Store  |  Customer Service  |  Guarantee  |  Privacy  |  Contact Us  |  Library  |  RSS  |  Site Map