ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Home  |  Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help
Facebook Google Plus
Fibromyalgia  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E.  Lyme Disease  Natural Wellness  Supplement News  Forums  Our Story
Store     Brands   |   A-Z Index   |   Best Sellers   |   New Products   |   Deals & Specials   |   Under $10   |   SmartSavings Club

Trending News

Friendly User's Guide for the Timing of Nutritional Supplements

The Health Benefits of Manuka Honey

Increase Your Magnesium Intake

Vitamin D supplementation could ease IBS symptoms

Top Tips to Boost Your Immunity

11 Amazing Health Benefits of Using Baking Soda

Nicotinamide riboside shows promise for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

Exercise, calcium, vitamin D, and other factors linked with fewer injurious falls

Vitamin D3 Is a Powerhouse for Your Heart

Mediterranean diet associated with lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer

 
Print Page
Email Article

RpoS is not central to the general stress response in Borrelia burgdorferi but does control expression of one or more essential virulence determinants.

  [ Not Yet Rated ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
By Caimano MJ, Eggers CH, Hazlett KR, Radolf JD • www.ProHealth.com • November 1, 2004


Abstract

Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, undergoes dramatic changes in antigenic composition as it cycles between its arthropod and mammalian hosts. A growing body of evidence suggests that these changes reflect, at least in part, the need for spirochetes to adapt to the physiological stresses imposed by abrupt changes in environmental conditions and nutrient availability. In many microorganisms, global responses are mediated by master regulators such as alternative sigma factors, with Escherichia coli RpoS (sigmaS) serving as a prototype. The importance of this transcriptional activator in other bacteria, coupled with the report by Hubner et al. (A. Hubner, X. Yang, D. M. Nolen, T. G. Popova, F. C. Cabello, and M. V. Norgard, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:12724-12729, 2001) demonstrating that the borrelial RpoS ortholog controls expression of OspC and decorin-binding protein A (DbpA), prompted us to examine more closely the roles of RpoS-dependent and -independent differential gene expression in physiological adaptation by the Lyme disease spirochete. We observed that B. burgdorferi rpoS (rpoSBb) was induced following temperature shift and transcript levels were further enhanced by reduced pH (pH 6.8). Using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), we demonstrated that, in contrast to its ortholog (rpoSEc) in Escherichia coli, rpoSBb was expressed at significant levels in B. burgdorferi throughout all phases of growth following temperature shift. By comparing a B. burgdorferi strain 297 rpoSBb mutant to its wild-type counterpart, we determined that RpoSBb was not required for survival following exposure to a wide range of environmental stresses (i.e., temperature shift, serum starvation, increased osmolality, reactive oxygen intermediates, and increased or reduced oxygen tension), although the mutant was more sensitive to extremes of pH. While B. burgdorferi strains lacking RpoS were able to survive within intraperitoneal dialysis membrane chambers at a level equivalent to that of the wild type, they were avirulent in mice. Lastly, RT-PCR analysis of the ospE-ospF-elp paralogous lipoprotein families complements earlier findings that many temperature-inducible borrelial loci are controlled in an RpoSBb-independent manner. Together, these data point to fundamental differences between the role(s) of RpoS in B. burgdorferi and that in E. coli. Rather than functioning as a master regulator, RpoSBb appears to serve as a stress-responsive activator of a subset of virulence determinants that, together with the RpoS-independent, differentially expressed regulon, encompass the spirochete's genetic programs required for mammalian host adaptation.

Infect Immun. 2004 Nov;72(11):6433-45. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.





Post a Comment

Featured Products From the ProHealth Store
Ultra ATP+, Double Strength Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil FibroSleep™


Article Comments



Be the first to comment on this article!

Post a Comment


 
Optimized Curcumin Longvida with Omega-3

Featured Products

FibroSleep™ FibroSleep™
The All-in-One Natural Sleep Aid
Energy NADH™ 12.5mg Energy NADH™ 12.5mg
Improve Energy & Cognitive Function
Vitamin D3 Extreme™ Vitamin D3 Extreme™
50,000 IU Vitamin D3 - Prescription Strength
Ultra ATP+, Double Strength Ultra ATP+, Double Strength
Get Energized with Malic Acid & Magnesium
Optimized Curcumin Longvida® Optimized Curcumin Longvida®
Supports Cognition, Memory & Overall Health

Natural Remedies

Stop Bacteria With Nature's Antibiotics Stop Bacteria With Nature's Antibiotics
IBS, Crohn’s Disease, Colitis, and Other Digestive Disorders IBS, Crohn’s Disease, Colitis, and Other Digestive Disorders
Vital Molecule Increases Cellular Energy and Improves Cognitive Function Vital Molecule Increases Cellular Energy and Improves Cognitive Function
Looking for Energy? Turn to Plants. Looking for Energy? Turn to Plants.
Running on Empty? Fuel Up with NADH Running on Empty? Fuel Up with NADH

CONTACT US
ProHealth, Inc.
555 Maple Ave
Carpinteria, CA 93013
(800) 366-6056  |  Email

· Become a Wholesaler
· Vendor Inquiries
· Affiliate Program
SHOP WITH CONFIDENCE
Credit Card Processing
SUBSCRIBE TO OUR NEWSLETTERS
Get the latest news about Fibromyalgia, M.E/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Lyme Disease and Natural Wellness

CONNECT WITH US ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus

© 2018 ProHealth, Inc. All rights reserved. Pain Tracker App  |  Store  |  Customer Service  |  Guarantee  |  Privacy  |  Contact Us  |  Library  |  RSS  |  Site Map