ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Home  |  Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help
Facebook Google Plus
Fibromyalgia  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E.  Lyme Disease  Natural Wellness  Supplement News  Forums  Our Story
Store     Brands   |   A-Z Index   |   Best Sellers   |   New Products   |   Deals & Specials   |   Under $10   |   SmartSavings Club

Trending News

10 Fibro-Friendly Foods with a Bonus: Beautiful Skin

Studies Show that Magnesium L-threonate Improves Brain Plasticity, Leading to Direct and Significant...

Clary Sage Oil May Be Pricey, but Its Benefits Are Priceless

Pumpkin Pie Turmeric Breakfast Smoothie - Vegan + Gluten-Free

Component of red wine, grapes can help to reduce inflammation, study finds

Poly MVA: A Novel Therapy for Increasing Energy, Repairing DNA, and Promoting Overall Health

Vitamin D supplementation extends life in mouse model of Huntington's disease

Omega-3 fatty acid stops known trigger of lupus

Conquer Your Email Inbox, Increase Productivity and Reduce Stress

The Significance of Selenium

Print Page
Email Article

Smoking and the Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis

  [ 83 votes ]   [ Discuss This Article ] • October 7, 2004

Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), like many chronic diseases of the immune system, likely results from a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers. Recently, a team of researchers in Sweden set out to investigate the interaction of two specific risk factors: the presence of a gene encoding protein sequence called the shared epitope (SE), the major genetic risk factor so far defined for RA, and cigarette smoking.

The results, published in the October 2004 issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism(, indicate that smoking significantly increases the risk of RA among men and women with a genetic predisposition for the disease. Conducted by a research team in Sweden, this population-based study focused on a large sample of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of the disease--858 individuals, 612 women and 246 men, with an average age of 49 years. The researchers also recruited 1,048 healthy individuals to serve as controls. Participants donated blood samples for DNA genotyping. Every participant also completed lifestyle questionnaires, including smoking habits. Since former smokers tend to have a wide variation in their cumulative smoking history, the researchers chose to restrict their analysis to current smokers and men and women who had never smoked. The DNA samples of the RA patients were studied for evidence of genes for the SE. The SE is a protein sequence found in cell surface molecules that regulate specific immune responses. The blood samples were also tested for rheumatoid factor, a hallmark of this disease. Then, analyzing women and men together, the researchers compared current smokers with never smokers for the risk of rheumatoid factor positive RA.

For people with the SE gene who never smoked, the increased risk for RA was assessed at 2.8 times. For current cigarette smokers without the SE gene, the risk factor was comparable--2.4 times. These findings affirm the SE gene and smoking as independently related to the development of rheumatoid factor positive RA. Among current smokers with the SE gene, however, the disease risk increased to 7.5 times. "The interaction was even more pronounced in smoking subjects with double SE genes, whose relative risk of rheumatoid factor positive RA was 15.7 times higher," observes one of the authors Leonid Padyukov, M.D., Ph.D. However, no risk was found for rheumatoid factor negative RA in this study.

Beyond strengthening the case against cigarette smoking as a health hazard, this study has important implications for ongoing research into the factors contributing to RA and other autoimmune diseases. "Our study also emphasizes the need to include data on environmental exposures in genetic analyses of a complex disease," the authors note. Article: "A Gene-Environment Interaction Between Smoking and Shared Epitope Genes in HLA-DR Provides a High Risk of Seropositive Rheumatoid Arthritis," Leonid Padyukov, Camilla Silva, Patrik Stolt, Lars Alfredsson, and Lars Klareskog for the Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis Study Group, Arthritis & Rheumatism, October 2004; 50:10; pp. 3085-3092.

Post a Comment

Featured Products From the ProHealth Store
Optimized Curcumin Longvida® Vitamin D3 Extreme™ Ultra ATP+, Double Strength

Looking for Vitamins, Herbs and Supplements?
Search the ProHealth Store for Hundreds of Natural Health Products

Article Comments

Be the first to comment on this article!

Post a Comment

Natural Pain Relief Supplements

Featured Products

Optimized Curcumin Longvida® Optimized Curcumin Longvida®
Supports Cognition, Memory & Overall Health
FibroSleep™ FibroSleep™
The All-in-One Natural Sleep Aid
Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil Ultra EPA - Fish Oil
Ultra concentrated source of essential fish oils
Energy NADH™ 12.5mg Energy NADH™ 12.5mg
Improve Energy & Cognitive Function
Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor®
Reduce Fatigue up to 45%

Natural Remedies

Help for Soreness and Swelling: What Do Silkworms Have to Do With It? Help for Soreness and Swelling: What Do Silkworms Have to Do With It?
How Glutathione Can Save Your Life How Glutathione Can Save Your Life
The Most Powerful Natural Antioxidant Discovered to Date - Hydroxytyrosol The Most Powerful Natural Antioxidant Discovered to Date - Hydroxytyrosol
Herbal Inflammation Management for Whole Body Health Herbal Inflammation Management for Whole Body Health
Vitamin E: Super Antioxidant We Only Thought We Knew Vitamin E: Super Antioxidant We Only Thought We Knew

ProHealth, Inc.
555 Maple Ave
Carpinteria, CA 93013
(800) 366-6056  |  Email

· Become a Wholesaler
· Vendor Inquiries
· Affiliate Program
Credit Card Processing
Be the first to know about new products, special discounts and the latest health news. *New subscribers only

CONNECT WITH US ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus

© 2016 ProHealth, Inc. All rights reserved. Pain Tracker App  |  Store  |  Customer Service  |  Guarantee  |  Privacy  |  Contact Us  |  Library  |  RSS  |  Site Map