ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Home  |  Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help
Facebook Google Plus
Fibromyalgia  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E.  Lyme Disease  Natural Wellness  Supplement News  Forums  Our Story
Store     Brands   |   A-Z Index   |   Best Sellers   |   New Products   |   Deals & Specials   |   Under $10   |   SmartSavings Club

Trending News

Tea drinkers have lower glaucoma risk

Why Is Chlorella Considered a Superfood?

Soy, cruciferous vegetables could help lower breast cancer treatment side effects

The Long-Term Benefits of Drinking Oolong Tea

Wonderful White Tea: A Drink Fit for an Emperor

Why You Should Try This Sweet-Smelling and Health-Boosting Essential Oil

Arnica: This Powerful Herb Promotes Various Kinds of Healing

Chamomile Tea: Why This Ancient Therapeutic Drink Still Stands Out Today

Get ‘Hooked’ on Cat’s Claw: The Many Benefits of This Amazonian Herb

Try Apple Cider Vinegar and Black Cumin Oil as Your Go-To Salad Dressing

 
Print Page
Email Article

Smoking and the Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis

  [ 83 votes ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
www.ProHealth.com • October 7, 2004


Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), like many chronic diseases of the immune system, likely results from a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers. Recently, a team of researchers in Sweden set out to investigate the interaction of two specific risk factors: the presence of a gene encoding protein sequence called the shared epitope (SE), the major genetic risk factor so far defined for RA, and cigarette smoking.

The results, published in the October 2004 issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism(http://www.interscience.wiley.com/journal/arthritis), indicate that smoking significantly increases the risk of RA among men and women with a genetic predisposition for the disease. Conducted by a research team in Sweden, this population-based study focused on a large sample of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of the disease--858 individuals, 612 women and 246 men, with an average age of 49 years. The researchers also recruited 1,048 healthy individuals to serve as controls. Participants donated blood samples for DNA genotyping. Every participant also completed lifestyle questionnaires, including smoking habits. Since former smokers tend to have a wide variation in their cumulative smoking history, the researchers chose to restrict their analysis to current smokers and men and women who had never smoked. The DNA samples of the RA patients were studied for evidence of genes for the SE. The SE is a protein sequence found in cell surface molecules that regulate specific immune responses. The blood samples were also tested for rheumatoid factor, a hallmark of this disease. Then, analyzing women and men together, the researchers compared current smokers with never smokers for the risk of rheumatoid factor positive RA.

For people with the SE gene who never smoked, the increased risk for RA was assessed at 2.8 times. For current cigarette smokers without the SE gene, the risk factor was comparable--2.4 times. These findings affirm the SE gene and smoking as independently related to the development of rheumatoid factor positive RA. Among current smokers with the SE gene, however, the disease risk increased to 7.5 times. "The interaction was even more pronounced in smoking subjects with double SE genes, whose relative risk of rheumatoid factor positive RA was 15.7 times higher," observes one of the authors Leonid Padyukov, M.D., Ph.D. However, no risk was found for rheumatoid factor negative RA in this study.

Beyond strengthening the case against cigarette smoking as a health hazard, this study has important implications for ongoing research into the factors contributing to RA and other autoimmune diseases. "Our study also emphasizes the need to include data on environmental exposures in genetic analyses of a complex disease," the authors note. Article: "A Gene-Environment Interaction Between Smoking and Shared Epitope Genes in HLA-DR Provides a High Risk of Seropositive Rheumatoid Arthritis," Leonid Padyukov, Camilla Silva, Patrik Stolt, Lars Alfredsson, and Lars Klareskog for the Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis Study Group, Arthritis & Rheumatism, October 2004; 50:10; pp. 3085-3092.



Post a Comment

Featured Products From the ProHealth Store
Vitamin D3 Extreme™ Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil Ultra ATP+, Double Strength


Article Comments



Be the first to comment on this article!

Post a Comment


 
Optimized Curcumin Longvida with Omega-3

Featured Products

Vitamin D3 Extreme™ Vitamin D3 Extreme™
50,000 IU Vitamin D3 - Prescription Strength
FibroSleep™ FibroSleep™
The All-in-One Natural Sleep Aid
Energy NADH™ 12.5mg Energy NADH™ 12.5mg
Improve Energy & Cognitive Function
Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor®
Reduce Fatigue up to 45%
Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil Ultra EPA - Fish Oil
Ultra concentrated source of essential fish oils

Natural Remedies

A Hard-Working Molecule that May Help Ease Pain & Brighten Mood A Hard-Working Molecule that May Help Ease Pain & Brighten Mood
The Genetic Mutation That May Compromise Your Health - And What to Do About It The Genetic Mutation That May Compromise Your Health - And What to Do About It
Complete and Natural Menopause Relief Complete and Natural Menopause Relief
Olea25 Olive Hydroxytyrosol Hits Astonishing 68,000+ ORAC Antioxidant Value Olea25 Olive Hydroxytyrosol Hits Astonishing 68,000+ ORAC Antioxidant Value
Could a B-12 Deficiency Be Causing Your Symptoms? Could a B-12 Deficiency Be Causing Your Symptoms?

CONTACT US
ProHealth, Inc.
555 Maple Ave
Carpinteria, CA 93013
(800) 366-6056  |  Email

· Become a Wholesaler
· Vendor Inquiries
· Affiliate Program
SHOP WITH CONFIDENCE
Credit Card Processing
SUBSCRIBE TO OUR NEWSLETTERS
Get the latest news about Fibromyalgia, M.E/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Lyme Disease and Natural Wellness

CONNECT WITH US ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus

© 2018 ProHealth, Inc. All rights reserved. Pain Tracker App  |  Store  |  Customer Service  |  Guarantee  |  Privacy  |  Contact Us  |  Library  |  RSS  |  Site Map