ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Home  |  Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help
Facebook Google Plus
Fibromyalgia  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E.  Lyme Disease  Natural Wellness  Supplement News  Forums  Our Story
Store     Brands   |   A-Z Index   |   Best Sellers   |   New Products   |   Deals & Specials   |   Under $10   |   SmartSavings Club

Trending News

SURVEY: Cognitive Impairment II

Top 3 Nutrients to Detox the Liver and Soothe Digestion

Natural Bladder Control, Go Less and Live More

Study bodes well for low-carb eaters

Top Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies — Are You at Risk?

Omega Fix for Obesity: How the Right Fats Fight Fat

Potential of Quercetin in the Treatment of Melanoma

How Pomegranate May Protect Against Cancer

Vital Molecule Increases Cellular Energy and Improves Cognitive Function

Trimming the spare tire: Canola oil may cut belly fat

 
Print Page
Email Article

Smoking and the Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis

  [ 83 votes ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
www.ProHealth.com • October 7, 2004


Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), like many chronic diseases of the immune system, likely results from a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers. Recently, a team of researchers in Sweden set out to investigate the interaction of two specific risk factors: the presence of a gene encoding protein sequence called the shared epitope (SE), the major genetic risk factor so far defined for RA, and cigarette smoking.

The results, published in the October 2004 issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism(http://www.interscience.wiley.com/journal/arthritis), indicate that smoking significantly increases the risk of RA among men and women with a genetic predisposition for the disease. Conducted by a research team in Sweden, this population-based study focused on a large sample of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of the disease--858 individuals, 612 women and 246 men, with an average age of 49 years. The researchers also recruited 1,048 healthy individuals to serve as controls. Participants donated blood samples for DNA genotyping. Every participant also completed lifestyle questionnaires, including smoking habits. Since former smokers tend to have a wide variation in their cumulative smoking history, the researchers chose to restrict their analysis to current smokers and men and women who had never smoked. The DNA samples of the RA patients were studied for evidence of genes for the SE. The SE is a protein sequence found in cell surface molecules that regulate specific immune responses. The blood samples were also tested for rheumatoid factor, a hallmark of this disease. Then, analyzing women and men together, the researchers compared current smokers with never smokers for the risk of rheumatoid factor positive RA.

For people with the SE gene who never smoked, the increased risk for RA was assessed at 2.8 times. For current cigarette smokers without the SE gene, the risk factor was comparable--2.4 times. These findings affirm the SE gene and smoking as independently related to the development of rheumatoid factor positive RA. Among current smokers with the SE gene, however, the disease risk increased to 7.5 times. "The interaction was even more pronounced in smoking subjects with double SE genes, whose relative risk of rheumatoid factor positive RA was 15.7 times higher," observes one of the authors Leonid Padyukov, M.D., Ph.D. However, no risk was found for rheumatoid factor negative RA in this study.

Beyond strengthening the case against cigarette smoking as a health hazard, this study has important implications for ongoing research into the factors contributing to RA and other autoimmune diseases. "Our study also emphasizes the need to include data on environmental exposures in genetic analyses of a complex disease," the authors note. Article: "A Gene-Environment Interaction Between Smoking and Shared Epitope Genes in HLA-DR Provides a High Risk of Seropositive Rheumatoid Arthritis," Leonid Padyukov, Camilla Silva, Patrik Stolt, Lars Alfredsson, and Lars Klareskog for the Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis Study Group, Arthritis & Rheumatism, October 2004; 50:10; pp. 3085-3092.



Post a Comment

Featured Products From the ProHealth Store
Optimized Curcumin Longvida® Energy NADH™ 12.5mg Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil


Article Comments



Be the first to comment on this article!

Post a Comment


 
Natural Pain Relief Supplements

Featured Products

Optimized Curcumin Longvida® Optimized Curcumin Longvida®
Supports Cognition, Memory & Overall Health
Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil Ultra EPA - Fish Oil
Ultra concentrated source of essential fish oils
Energy NADH™ 12.5mg Energy NADH™ 12.5mg
Improve Energy & Cognitive Function
FibroSleep™ FibroSleep™
The All-in-One Natural Sleep Aid
Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor®
Reduce Fatigue up to 45%

Natural Remedies

Priming Your Immune System for Cold & Flu Season Priming Your Immune System for Cold & Flu Season
Restore Youthful Cognition and Well-Being Restore Youthful Cognition and Well-Being
Complete and Natural Menopause Relief Complete and Natural Menopause Relief
The Fast-Acting Solution for Healthy Digestive Function The Fast-Acting Solution for Healthy Digestive Function
Reversing Neurodegeneration with a New Magnesium Compound Reversing Neurodegeneration with a New Magnesium Compound

CONTACT US
ProHealth, Inc.
555 Maple Ave
Carpinteria, CA 93013
(800) 366-6056  |  Email

· Become a Wholesaler
· Vendor Inquiries
· Affiliate Program
SHOP WITH CONFIDENCE
Credit Card Processing
SUBSCRIBE TO OUR NEWSLETTERS
Get the latest news about Fibromyalgia, M.E/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Lyme Disease and Natural Wellness

CONNECT WITH US ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus

© 2016 ProHealth, Inc. All rights reserved. Pain Tracker App  |  Store  |  Customer Service  |  Guarantee  |  Privacy  |  Contact Us  |  Library  |  RSS  |  Site Map