ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Home  |  Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help
Facebook Google Plus
Fibromyalgia  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E.  Lyme Disease  Natural Wellness  Supplement News  Forums  Our Story
Store     Brands   |   A-Z Index   |   Best Sellers   |   New Products   |   Deals & Specials   |   Under $10   |   SmartSavings Club

Trending News

Meta-analysis adds evidence to association between omega-3 supplementation and lower heart rate

Friendly User's Guide for the Timing of Nutritional Supplements

The Health Benefits of Manuka Honey

Increase Your Magnesium Intake

Vitamin D supplementation could ease IBS symptoms

Top Tips to Boost Your Immunity

11 Amazing Health Benefits of Using Baking Soda

Nicotinamide riboside shows promise for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

Exercise, calcium, vitamin D, and other factors linked with fewer injurious falls

Mediterranean diet associated with lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer

 
Print Page
Email Article

The taxonomic aspects of the transmission of the causative agent of Lyme disease.

  [ Not Yet Rated ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
By Filippova NA • www.ProHealth.com • July 1, 1990


Abstract

According to world literature data 17 species of ixodid ticks have been studied for natural infection with the Lyme disease agent. Analysis of the data on the level of the infection, transovarial and transphase transmission has shown that main biological vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi are the species of the subgenus Ixodes s. str. - I. ricinus, I. persulcatus (Eurasia), I. dammini, I. pacificus (North America). Potential vectors are I. scapularis, I. dentatus, Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis. Single isolations were registered for I. neotomae, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, D. occidentalis. Nonidentified spirocheta was isolated from A. americanum, D. variabilis, D. parumapertum, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. No agent was isolated from I. cookey, D. albipictus, R. reticulatus, H. concinna. On the basis of comparative and ontogenetic data the species from a group of main vectors: I. ricinus, I. persulcatus, I. pacificus had been attributed by me to the phyletic group persulcatus before Lyme disease was discovered and its causative agent isolated. The question whether I. scapularis belongs to the group persulcatus was also discussed at that time but left open due to somewhat aberrant structure of gnathosoma at preimaginal phases (Filippova, 1969, 1971, 1973). 6 Palaearctic, 2 Indomalayan and 3 Nearctic species were referred to the group persulcatus at the time. I. dammini was described later, in 1979. Gnathosoma of its preimaginal phases has an intermediate structure between I. scapularis and other species of the group persulcatus. Sexually mature phase and nymph of I. dentatus have much in common with Palaearctic members of the group, I. pavlovskyi, I. kazakstani, I. kashmicus. Preimaginal phases of I. scapularis and nymph of I. dentatus were studied by me on the collection material. Thus, it is possible to speak of the belonging of main vectors of B. burgdorferi to a common phyletic group within the subgenus Ixodes s. str. and, therefore, of common origin of ecological medium for the agent. At the same time each species of the vector is an evolutionally developed difference of ecological medium for B. burgdorferi. Roots of the group persulcatus could originate as far as in Paleocene before the land connection between North America and Europe disappeared. Conditions for the existence of recent species, however, appeared considerably later and their flourishing is dated by Pliocene. The main epidemiological role belongs now to I. ricinus, I. persulcatus, I. dammini, I. pacificus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Parazitologiia. 1990 Jul-Aug;24(4):257-67. English Abstract; Review





Post a Comment

Featured Products From the ProHealth Store
Optimized Curcumin Longvida® Ultra ATP+, Double Strength Vitamin D3 Extreme™


Article Comments



Be the first to comment on this article!

Post a Comment


 
Optimized Curcumin Longvida with Omega-3

Featured Products

Vitamin D3 Extreme™ Vitamin D3 Extreme™
50,000 IU Vitamin D3 - Prescription Strength
Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil Ultra EPA - Fish Oil
Ultra concentrated source of essential fish oils
Optimized Curcumin Longvida® Optimized Curcumin Longvida®
Supports Cognition, Memory & Overall Health
FibroSleep™ FibroSleep™
The All-in-One Natural Sleep Aid
Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor®
Reduce Fatigue up to 45%

Natural Remedies

Health Benefits Are Brewing in Green Tea Health Benefits Are Brewing in Green Tea
Coenzyme Q10 - The Energy Maker Coenzyme Q10 - The Energy Maker
Mitochondria-Booster NIAGEN® Shows Promise in First Human Clinical Trial Mitochondria-Booster NIAGEN® Shows Promise in First Human Clinical Trial
The Surprising Benefits of Probiotics - What You Didn't Know The Surprising Benefits of Probiotics - What You Didn't Know
Breakthrough Form of Magnesium Enhances Memory and Cognitive Function Breakthrough Form of Magnesium Enhances Memory and Cognitive Function

CONTACT US
ProHealth, Inc.
555 Maple Ave
Carpinteria, CA 93013
(800) 366-6056  |  Email

· Become a Wholesaler
· Vendor Inquiries
· Affiliate Program
SHOP WITH CONFIDENCE
Credit Card Processing
SUBSCRIBE TO OUR NEWSLETTERS
Get the latest news about Fibromyalgia, M.E/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Lyme Disease and Natural Wellness

CONNECT WITH US ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus

© 2018 ProHealth, Inc. All rights reserved. Pain Tracker App  |  Store  |  Customer Service  |  Guarantee  |  Privacy  |  Contact Us  |  Library  |  RSS  |  Site Map