ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Home  |  Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help
Facebook Google Plus
Fibromyalgia  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E.  Lyme Disease  Natural Wellness  Supplement News  Forums  Our Story
Store     Brands   |   A-Z Index   |   Best Sellers   |   New Products   |   Deals & Specials   |   Under $10   |   SmartSavings Club

Trending News

15 Health Benefits of Chia Seeds, According to Science

Tangerine Oil: A Citrusy Essential Oil With Well-Rounded Uses

Natural Remedies for the Prevention of Dry Eyes

Magnesium Deficiency Raises Your Risk of Many Chronic Ailments

Resveratrol supplementation improves arterial stiffness in type 2 diabetics

CoQ10's Potential Capabilities for Your Health

How Can Melatonin Benefit You?

Cloves: Boost Your Immune System the Sweet and Spicy Way

8 Chia Seed Recipes

Testosterone replacement therapy associated with improved urinary, sexual function

 
Print Page
Email Article

Abstract: Risk factors for developing systemic lupus erythematosus: a case–control study in southern Sweden

  [ 7 votes ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
www.ProHealth.com • May 15, 2002




Rheumatology 2002; 41: 563-571


A. A. Bengtsson, L. Rylander1, L. Hagmar1, O. Nived and G. Sturfelt
Departments of Rheumatology and
1 Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital of Lund, S-221 85 Lund, Sweden

Objective. To explore the risk factors that have been suggested to be associated with the development of SLE.

Methods. A case–control study was performed and a questionnaire was developed to obtain the data. Consecutive female incident cases diagnosed between 1981 and 1999 in a defined geographical area in southern Sweden were included. Controls, matched for calendar year of birth, were selected randomly from the same area. In total, 85 cases and 205 controls agreed to participate. The questionnaire included questions about formal education, body weight and height, medical history, family history of autoimmune diseases, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, animals, hair-colouring dyes, alfalfa (lucerne) sprouts, smoking and alcohol habits, history of physical traumata, blood transfusion, silicone breast implants, exogenous oestrogens, other medication, and significant negative life events.

Results. Using a multivariate model, a history of hypertension [odds ratio (OR)=3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–9.8], drug allergy (OR=3.6, 95% CI 1.4–9.5), a type I/II sun-reactive skin type (OR=2.3, 95% CI 1.1–4.8) and a family history of SLE (OR=6.8, 95% CI 1.4–32) were all significantly associated with an increased risk of developing SLE, whereas consumption of alcohol was inversely associated with the risk of SLE (use of alcohol very seldom, OR=1.0; 1–150 g/month, OR=0.4, 95% CI 0.2–1.0; >150 g/month, OR=0.2, 95% CI 0.1–0.5). A suggested association with increased SLE risk was seen for smoking (OR=1.8, 95% CI 0.9–3.6) and blood transfusions (OR=2.3, 95% CI 0.9–5.8). Neither exposure to exogenous oestrogen nor exposure to hair-colouring dyes was associated with SLE.

Conclusions. Risk factors of both exogenous and endogenous origin were identified in this population-based series of SLE patients.


KEY WORDS: SLE, Risk factors, Smoking, Alcohol, Drug allergy, Hypertension, Family history.

Correspondence to: A. Bengtsson.

© 2002 British Society for Rheumatology




Post a Comment

Featured Products From the ProHealth Store
Optimized Curcumin Longvida® Energy NADH™ 12.5mg Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil


Article Comments



Be the first to comment on this article!

Post a Comment


 
Optimized Curcumin Longvida with Omega-3

Featured Products

Ultra ATP+, Double Strength Ultra ATP+, Double Strength
Get energized with malic acid & magnesium
Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor®
Reduce Fatigue up to 45%
Optimized Curcumin Longvida® Optimized Curcumin Longvida®
Supports Cognition, Memory & Overall Health
Energy NADH™ 12.5mg Energy NADH™ 12.5mg
Improve Energy & Cognitive Function
Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil Ultra EPA - Fish Oil
Ultra concentrated source of essential fish oils

Natural Remedies

The Crucial Role CoQ10 Plays in Fibromyalgia and ME/CFS The Crucial Role CoQ10 Plays in Fibromyalgia and ME/CFS
Strontium - The Missing Mineral for Strong Bones Strontium - The Missing Mineral for Strong Bones
Breakthrough Form of Magnesium Enhances Memory and Cognitive Function Breakthrough Form of Magnesium Enhances Memory and Cognitive Function
Health Benefits Are Brewing in Green Tea Health Benefits Are Brewing in Green Tea
Nutrients to Combat the Modern Stress Epidemic Nutrients to Combat the Modern Stress Epidemic

CONTACT US
ProHealth, Inc.
555 Maple Ave
Carpinteria, CA 93013
(800) 366-6056  |  Email

· Become a Wholesaler
· Vendor Inquiries
· Affiliate Program
SHOP WITH CONFIDENCE
Credit Card Processing
SUBSCRIBE TO OUR NEWSLETTERS
Get the latest news about Fibromyalgia, M.E/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Lyme Disease and Natural Wellness

CONNECT WITH US ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus

© 2017 ProHealth, Inc. All rights reserved. Pain Tracker App  |  Store  |  Customer Service  |  Guarantee  |  Privacy  |  Contact Us  |  Library  |  RSS  |  Site Map