ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Home  |  Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help
Facebook Google Plus
Fibromyalgia  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E.  Lyme Disease  Natural Wellness  Supplement News  Forums  Our Story
Store     Brands   |   A-Z Index   |   Best Sellers   |   New Products   |   Deals & Specials   |   Under $10   |   SmartSavings Club

Trending News

Is Coconut Oil Healthy? (The American Heart Association Doesn’t Think So)

American Heart Association Renders Itself Obsolete With 1960s Dietary Advice on Coconut Oil

Ginger Fights Obesity

Health Benefits of Artichokes

Putting the Spotlight on Coriander Seed Oil

Migraines? Powdered Ginger May Help

Are Americans Really Getting Too Much Vitamin D? A Critical Look at Recent Media Warnings

Eating more vegetable protein may protect against early menopause

Vitamin C and antibiotics: A new one-two 'punch' for knocking-out cancer stem cells

German Chamomile Oil: A Versatile Essential Oil You Should Have at Home

 
Print Page
Email Article

Abstract: Theoretical accounts of Gulf War Syndrome: From environmental toxins to psychoneuroimmunology and neurodegeneration

  [ 30 votes ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
www.ProHealth.com • November 27, 2002


Behav Neurol 2000;13(3,4):133-147  Ferguson E, Cassaday HJ.

School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK. Tel.: +44 115 9 515327; Fax: +44 115 9 515324; E-mail: eamonn.ferguson@nottingham.ac.uk; helen.cassaday@nottingham.ac.uk

Non-specific illness includes a wide variety of symptoms: behavioural (e.g., reduced food and water intake), cognitive (e.g., memory and concentration problems) and physiological (e.g., fever). This paper reviews evidence suggesting that such symptoms can be explained more parsimoniously as a single symptom cluster than as a set of separate illnesses such as Gulf War Syndrome (GWS) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).

This superordinate syndrome could have its biological basis in the activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines (in particular interleukin-1: IL-1), that give rise to what has become known as the 'sickness response'. It is further argued that the persistence of non-specific illness in chronic conditions like GWS may be (in part) attributable to a bio-associative mechanism (Ferguson and Cassaday, 1999). In the case of GWS, physiological challenges could have produced a non-specific sickness response that became associated with smells (e.g., petrol), coincidentally experienced in the Persian Gulf.

On returning to the home environment, these same smells would act as associative triggers for the maintenance of (conditioned) sickness responses. Such associative mechanisms could be mediated through the hypothalamus and limbic system via vagal nerve innervation and would provide an explanation for the persistence of a set of symptoms (e.g., fever) that should normally be short lived and self-limiting.

We also present evidence that the pattern of symptoms produced by the pro-inflammatory cytokines reflects a shift in immune system functioning towards a (T-helper-1) Th1 profile. This position contrasts with other immunological accounts of GWS that suggest that the immune system demonstrates a shift to a Th2 (allergy) profile. Evidence pertaining to these two contrasting positions is reviewed.

PMID: 12446953 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Post a Comment

Featured Products From the ProHealth Store
Vitamin D3 Extreme™ Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil FibroSleep™

Looking for Vitamins, Herbs and Supplements?
Search the ProHealth Store for Hundreds of Natural Health Products


Article Comments



Be the first to comment on this article!

Post a Comment


 
NAD+ Ignite with Niagen

Featured Products

Vitamin D3 Extreme™ Vitamin D3 Extreme™
50,000 IU Vitamin D3 - Prescription Strength
Ultra ATP+, Double Strength Ultra ATP+, Double Strength
Get energized with malic acid & magnesium
Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil Ultra EPA - Fish Oil
Ultra concentrated source of essential fish oils
Energy NADH™ 12.5mg Energy NADH™ 12.5mg
Improve Energy & Cognitive Function
FibroSleep™ FibroSleep™
The All-in-One Natural Sleep Aid

Natural Remedies

Breakthrough Form of Magnesium Enhances Memory and Cognitive Function Breakthrough Form of Magnesium Enhances Memory and Cognitive Function
Red Yeast Rice - Natural Option for Supporting Healthy Cholesterol Red Yeast Rice - Natural Option for Supporting Healthy Cholesterol
Natural Relief for Soreness, Pain and Swelling - Putting Out the Fire Natural Relief for Soreness, Pain and Swelling - Putting Out the Fire
The Big Blue Fish that Helps Chase the Blues Away The Big Blue Fish that Helps Chase the Blues Away
Curcumin - a Golden Gift of Nature with Benefits Still Untold Curcumin - a Golden Gift of Nature with Benefits Still Untold

CONTACT US
ProHealth, Inc.
555 Maple Ave
Carpinteria, CA 93013
(800) 366-6056  |  Email

· Become a Wholesaler
· Vendor Inquiries
· Affiliate Program
SHOP WITH CONFIDENCE
Credit Card Processing
SUBSCRIBE TO OUR NEWSLETTERS
Get the latest news about Fibromyalgia, M.E/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Lyme Disease and Natural Wellness

CONNECT WITH US ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus

© 2017 ProHealth, Inc. All rights reserved. Pain Tracker App  |  Store  |  Customer Service  |  Guarantee  |  Privacy  |  Contact Us  |  Library  |  RSS  |  Site Map