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It is proposed that peripheral blood fibrocytes will be a new and important player in the pathogenesis of
Lyme disease. Peripheral blood fibrocytes are a circulating leukocyte subpopulation that: (a) express collagen; (b) are an abundant source of cytokines, chemoattractants and growth factors; and (c) are able to recruit and activate naive T-cells and memory T-cells. We predict that peripheral blood fibrocytes will represent a new and important antigen-presenting cell which will play an important role in directing the immune response from the pathogenic Th1 to the protective Th2 response cell in Borrelia infections.