J Pain. 2005 Jun;6(6):384-91.
Burwinkle T, Robinson JP, Turk DC.
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
Chronic pain patients often report fears that movement will exacerbate their symptoms. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK) was designed to assess fear of movement. Previous findings with the TSK showed inconsistent factor structures and varied measurement properties. The TSK was completed by a sample of 233 patients with fibromyalgia syndrome who were being evaluated for participation in a rehabilitation program. A principal components analysis initially derived a 5-factor solution.
However, the factor structure accounted for less than 50% of the variance, and the internal consistency of the factors was below conventional standards (<0.70). A series of principal components analyses "forcing" different factor structures revealed that the best solution was a single factor solution that contained 4 of the original 17 TSK items, accounting for more than 50% of the variance with adequate internal consistency (alpha =0.71).
Inspection of the content of these 4 items, however, suggests that this factor more likely represents catastrophic thinking, rather than fear of movement. Nevertheless, for patients with fibromyalgia syndrome, a 4-item TSK appears to retain the most acceptable factor solution while also maintaining adequate internal consistency.
PERSPECTIVE: Although the TSK is one of the most commonly used measures of fear of movement, the present study using the TSK with a sample of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome suggests that the measurement properties of the TSK are problematic. Recommendations for use of the TSK are provided.
PMID: 15943960 [PubMed – in process]