Infect Immun. 2003 Oct;71(10):6051-3. Glickstein L, Moore B, Bledsoe T, Damle N, Sikand V, Steere AC. Division of Rheumatology/Immunology, New England Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111.
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In a study of cytokine production ex vivo by Borrelia burgdorferi-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 27 patients with culture-positive erythema migrans, production of inflammatory cytokines predominated, particularly gamma interferon and, to a lesser degree, tumor necrosis factor alpha. In contrast, with the exception of interleukin-13, anti-inflammatory cytokine production was negligible. Thus, B. burgdorferi antigens in early Lyme disease often induce a strong inflammatory response.
PMID: 14500528 [PubMed – in process]