Source: Cranio 2002 Jul;20(3):158-64 Sipila K, Zitting P, Siira P, Laukkanen P, Jarvelin MR, Oikarinen KS, Raustia AM. Dept. of Prosthetic Dentistry and Stomatognathic Physiology, Institute of Dentistry, University of Oulu, Finland. firstname.lastname@example.org
The etiology of facial pain is multifactorial. Based on the results of a questionnaire included in the study of the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort, performed in 1997-98, we found an association of facial pain with subjective symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), neck pain and with occlusal factors reported by 5,696 subjects.
The aim of the present study was to examine these associations clinically. In the year 2000, a new inquiry was sent to the following subjects living in Oulu: 1. all subjects who had reported facial pain in the former questionnaire (n=162) (case group); and 2. to a randomly selected group of nonpain controls (n=200), group matched for gender. Those who reported willingness to participate were invited to a clinical examination. Finally, the total number of subjects was 104, including 52 (10 men, 42 women) cases and 52 (10 men, 42 women) controls. Anamnestic data were collected, and clinical stomatognathic and musculoskeletal examinations were performed, both the clinicians and the subjects being unaware of the case-control status.
Anamnestically, stress was the most often reported provoking factor for facial pain. Facial pain associated significantly with reported TMD symptoms and allergies. Based on clinical findings, most of the cases were classified in themyogenous subgroup of TMD. The risk for facial pain was six-fold in subjeets with clinically assessed TMD, defined as moderate (DiII) or severe (DiIII) by Helkimo's clinical dysfunction index, almost six-fold in subjects with protrusion interferences and approximately three-fold in subjects with clinically assessed tenderness of distinct fibromyalgia (FM) points in the neck.
According to the adjusted logistic regression analyses, TMD had the strongest influence on facial pain, followed by protrusion interferences, anamnestically reported allergies and "other headaches". The present study shows that as well as being connected with TMD, facial pain is associated with pain and muscle tenderness in the neck area.
PMID: 12150261 [PubMed – in process]