[Note: readers may access a full-text pdf file of this article at http://www.amcp.org/data/jmcp/262-72.pdf. In particular, Table 5 provides U.S. insurance database statistics on the higher co-morbidity in women with endometriosis (compared with women in the general population) of chronic fatigue syndrome, interstitial cystitis, irritable bowel syndrome, depression, infertility, migraine, and abdominal pain.]
Journal: Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy. 2007 Apr;13(3):262-72.
Authors: Mirkin D, Murphy-Barron C, Iwasaki K.
Background: Endometriosis is a painful, chronic disease affecting 5.5 million women and girls in the United States and Canada and millions more worldwide. The usual age range of women diagnosed with endometriosis is 20 to 45 years. Endometriosis has an estimated prevalence of 10% among women of reproductive age, although estimates of prevalence vary greatly.
Endometriosis is the most common gynecological cause of chronic pelvic pain, but published information on its associated medical care costs is scarce.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine (1) the prevalence of endometriosis in the United States, (2) the amount of health care services used by women coded with endometriosis in a commercial medical claims database during 1999 to 2003, and (3) the endometriosis-related costs for 2003, the most recent data available at the time the study was performed.
Methods: This study was a retrospective review of administrative data for commercial payers, which included enrollment, eligibility, and claims payment data contained in the Medstat Marketscan database for approximately 4 million commercial insurance members. All claims and membership data were extracted for each woman aged 18 to 55 years who had at least 1 medical or hospital claim with a diagnosis code for endometriosis (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] codes 617.00-617.99) for 1999 through 2003.
Claims data from 1999 through 2003 were used to determine prevalence and health care resource utilization (i.e., annual admission rate, annual surgical rate, distribution of endometriosis-related surgeries, and prevalence of comorbid conditions). The cost analysis was based on claims from 2003 only. Cost was defined as the payer-allowed charge, which equals the net payer cost plus member cost share.
Results: The prevalence of women with medical claims (inpatient and/or outpatient) containing ICD-9-CM codes for endometriosis was 1.1% for the age band of 30 to 39 years and 0.7% over the entire age span of 18 to 55 years. The medical costs per patient per month (PPPM) for women with endometriosis were 63% greater ($706 PPPM) than those of the average woman per member per month ($433) in 2003; inpatient hospital costs accounted for 32% of total direct medical costs. Between 1999 and 2003, these women with endometriosis who were identified by either inpatient and/or outpatient claims had high rates of hospital admission (53% for any reason; 38% for an endometriosis-related reason) and a high annual surgical procedure rate (64%).
Additionally, women with endometriosis frequently suffered from comorbid conditions, and these conditions were associated with greater PPPM costs of 15% to 50% for women with an endometriosis diagnosis code, depending on the condition. Interstitial Cystitis was associated with 50% greater cost ($1,061 PPPM); Depression, 41% ($997 PPPM); Migraine, 40% ($988 PPPM); Irritable Bowel Syndrome, 34% ($943 PPPM); Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, 29% ($913 PPPM); Abdominal pain, 20% ($846 PPPM); Infertility, 15% ($813 PPPM).
Conclusions: Women with endometriosis have a high hospital admission rate and surgical procedure rate and a high incidence of comorbid conditions. Consequently, these women incur total medical costs that are, on average, 63% higher than medical costs for the average woman in a commercially insured group.