Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) is a key enzyme in signal transduction. A subset of muscarinic cholinergic receptors are linked to G-proteins that activate phospholipase C. Cholinergic pathways are important in learning and memory, and deficits in cholinergic transmission have been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). AD is also associated with increased beta-amyloid plaques.
In the present study, we have investigated the effect of the amyloid beta (A beta) synthetic peptide homologous to residue 25-35 of A beta in nonaggregated and aggregated forms on the degradation of inositol phospholipids. Synaptic plasma membranes (SPM) and the cytosolic fraction from rat brain cortex served as a source of enzymes. The studies were carried out with radioactive inositol phospholipids in the presence of endogenous and 2 mM CaCl2. The enzyme(s) activity was evaluated by determination of the product formation of [3H]inositol-1-phosphate (IP1) or [3H]inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3).
Results show that the PI-PLC activity was significantly higher in cytosol compared to SPM, and this enzyme was stimulated by 2 mM CaCl2, but not by GTPgammaS or carbachol, a cholinergic receptor agonist. Activity of the SPM-bound PIP2-PLC was similar to that in cytosol and was not activated by 2 mM CaCl2. The SPM PIP2-PLC was significantly stimulated by GTPgammaS together with the cholinergic agonist, carbachol. Fresh-water-soluble A beta 25-35 activated PI-PLC in SPM markedly by two- to threefold, but this effect was absent in the presence of 2 mM CaCl2. Moreover, A beta 25-35 had no effect on basal PIP2-PLC activity and cytosolic PI-PLC and PIP2-PLC. The aggregated form of A beta 25-35 significantly inhibited PIP2-PLC only in the presence of endogenous CaCl2. It also inhibited the carbachol and GTP(gamma)S-stimulated PIP2-PLC.
Our findings show that depending on the aggregation state and Ca2+ concentration, A beta modulates phosphoinositide degradation differently and exclusively in brain synaptic plasma membranes. Our data suggested that aggregated A beta peptide may be responsible for the significant impairment of phosphoinositide signaling found in brain membranes during AD.
Source: J Mol Neurosci 1999 Apr;12(2):101-9
PMID: 10527454, UI: 99454578
(Department of Cellular Signalling, Medical Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.)