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Serum samples from 93 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and nine gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) trapped in Wisconsin and 23 coyotes (Canis latrans) trapped in Wisconsin and Minnesota were tested for antibodies to Borrelia sp. with an indirect fluorescent antibody test which used Borrelia burgdorferi as the whole-cell antigen. Seven red foxes (8%) and two coyotes (9%) had antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:64. All the positive samples were from areas known to be endemic for human
Lyme disease. Implications for the epizootiology of
Lyme borreliosis in wild canids are not well understood, but even if these species are not actual reservoirs of B. burgdorferi they could serve to increase the range of the vector and establish new endemic foci of the spirochete.