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Application of medical and analytical methods in Lyme borreliosis monitoring.

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Lyme borreliosis (LB) is one of the most common tick-borne diseases in the northern hemisphere. It is a chronic inflammatory
disease caused by the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi. In its early stages, pathological skin lesions, namely erythema chronicum migrans, appear. The lesions, usually localised at the site of the bite, may become visible from a few weeks up to 3 months after the infection. Predominant clinical symptoms of the
disease also involve joint malfunctions and neurological or cardiac disorders.
Lyme disease, in all its stages, may be successfully treated with antibiotics. The best results, however, are obtained in its early stages. In order to diagnose the
disease, numerous medical or laboratory techniques have been developed. They are applied to confirm the presence of intact spirochaetes or spirochaete components such as DNA or proteins in tick vectors, reservoir hosts or patients. The methods used for the determination of LB biomarkers have also been reviewed. These biomarkers are formed during the lipid peroxidation process. The formation of peroxidation products generated by human organisms is directly associated with oxidative stress. Apart from aldehydes (malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal), many other unsaturated components such as isoprostenes and neuroprostane are obtained. The fast determination of these compounds in encephalic fluid, urine or plasma, especially in early stages of the
disease, enables its treatment. Various analytical techniques which allow the determination of the aforementioned biomarkers have been reported. These include spectrophotometry as well as liquid and gas chromatography. The analytical procedure also requires the application of a derivatization step by the use of selected reagents.

Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012 Mar;402(7):2233-48. doi: 10.1007/s00216-011-5451-z. Epub 2011 Oct 21. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t; Review

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