The term aseptic meningitis encompasses all types of inflammations of the brain meninges other than that caused by pus producing organisms. It is usually a benign illness. Etiology of aseptic meningitis is very wide and includes many infections – both viral and non viral, drugs, malignancy and systemic illness. The most common cause is viral infection and enteroviruses – Coxsackie and ECHO viruses account for more than half of all cases. Clinical manifestations include headache, fever, malaise, photophobia and meningeal signs. Convulsions, neurological deficits and severe obtundation are rare except with certain non viral infectious meningitis. Diagnostic work up includes blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination and serology for infectious meningitis. The polymerase chain reaction is a rapid and accurate method for detection of microbial DNA in CSF. Treatment is mainly supportive, except for the nonviral infectious etiology.