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Lyme disease agent Borrelia garinii has been suggested to be neurotrop, preferentially affecting the nervous system. We compared the secretion of interferon-gamma in response to outer surface proteins from Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii in 10 patients with neuroborreliosis. In cerebrospinal fluid, stimulation with Borrelia garinii revealed higher numbers of interferon-gamma-secreting cells in all patients, whereas in blood, only five displayed higher numbers. This further strengthens the hypothesis of Borrelia garinii being associated with the development of neuroborreliosis.