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Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochaete that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier in early infection and can cause endothelial damage other than central nervous system lesions. We describe a clinical case of neuroborreliosis that occurred in the absence of classical erythema migrans or arthralgia. Magnetic resonance imaging findings compatible with simil-vasculitis and demyelinating lesions associated with the presence of anti-B. burgdorferi antibodies in the plasma or cerebrospinal liquid is an indication for antimicrobial treatment against B. burgdorferi. An early diagnosis and a prompt establishment of an adequate antibiotic treatment is needed for a successful recovery.