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Cutaneous symptoms and skin diseases are common findings in almost all HIV-1-positive patients. In many cases the clinical presentation and course of the skin diseases are atypical, and occasionally the development of the appropriate circulating antibodies is lacking or impaired. In this report we present a patient seen in our multidisciplinary outpatient clinic for HIV patients. This patient had a Borrelia burgdorferi infection with an unusual course. The acute inflammatory phase of the arthropod reaction was maintained over a period of 9 months with development into pseudolymphoma showing unusual cytological characteristics. Immunohistological evaluation revealed an almost complete lack of T-helper and Langerhans cells, but an increased number of activated cytotoxic cells with class II antigen expression. A marked serological response was observed on IgG-ELISA and in the IgG-immunofluorescence test. Borrelia burgdorferi was cultured in vitro from a skin biopsy of the involved area. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of skin borreliosis in an HIV-1-positive patient.