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Various studies in the United States and Europe have established human leucocyte antigens (HLA) Cw3, DR2 and DR4 as risk factors for manifest Borrelia burgdorferi infection or the development of chronic courses of
Lyme disease. Other studies failed to confirm these findings. In the present study the frequencies of HLA A, B, Cw and DR were analysed in 283 persons from Austria and Germany with manifest B. burgdorferi infection. No statistically significant differences were found between patients and the control groups with regard to the frequencies of particular HLA antigens, nor were differences in antigen frequencies in the patients with manifestations of different stages of
disease significant. Furthermore, a statistical re-evaluation of all the European studies failed to confirm particular HLA antigens as risk factors for B. burgdorferi infections to become manifest or chronic.