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Forty-four marsupials, 77 rodents and 161 ticks were captured in an Atlantic Forest Reserve in Cotia county, State of São Paulo, where human cases of
Lyme disease (LD) simile were reported. Twenty-one borrelia-like spirochete isolates were recovered from the mammals’ blood and rodent livers or spleens, and triturated ticks inoculated into BSK II medium. Our results suggest that the reservoirs and ticks collected may harbor borrelia-like spirochetes, some of which have an antigenic similarity with the unknown causative agent of LD simile in Brazil, and/or with North American Borrelia burgdorferi s. s.