43 children suffering from borreliosis, meningitis and septicemia were treated with ceftriaxone. A six year old boy with acute jaundice due to ceftriaxone induced cholelithiasis encouraged us to reevaluate the frequency of ceftriaxone induced cholelithiasis and its’ sequelae in children in a prospective study. Out of 43 children (age 6.3 years, 4 months to 16 years, male: female 25:18), 20 children (46.5%) showed sonographical evidence for ceftriaxone induced cholelithiasis after a treatment of at least 10 days. Two of them even had signs of intrahepatic cholestasis, 3 kids suffered from severe abdominal pain, non of them showed serologic abnormalities. Another 5 children (11.6%) had sludge in the gallbladder without evidence for cholelithiasis. In all patients the “pseudocholelithiasis” spontaneously resolved within at most 2 months. We suggest a sonographical examination of the gallbladder at the end of the ceftriaxone treatment in order to detect cholelithiasis, which might call for further monitoring and maybe dietary treatment.