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Lyme borreliosis is a multisystem disorder common in childhood. It is an acute and persistent anthropozoonotic infection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) which is transmitted by Ixodes ticks. After the tick bite in summer, erythema migrans, meningoradiculoneuritis, or carditis may develop within the same season. Later manifestations may be oligo-arthritis, progressive encephalomyelitis, or acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. The most common course is probably asymptomatic. Connatal infection is possible. Diagnosis is established mainly by history and clinical manifestations. The antibody response to Bb can be measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Tests may be false-negative early in the course of the
disease or after early treatment. False-positive results may be caused by cross-reactions. Interpretation of test results must also consider unrelated anamnestic titres or asymptomatic infection. Treatment with appropriate antibiotics cures the
disease in most patients, however some patients may not respond. The optimal drug has not yet been found. Best prophylaxis is by early removal of the tick from the skin.