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Vector transmitted diseases are often a serious threat for child health, especially for children traveller in tropical regions. Few arthropod borne diseases are preventable by immunization or chimioprophylaxis. Prevention of most of them is based on personal protection against arthropod bites. The evidence of its efficacy has been established by the use of impregnated bed nets, impregnated clothes with permethrin or mosquito repellent which reduced significantly child malaria morbidity and mortality in endemic countries. These personal protective measures are able to minimize arthropod bites and prevent Chikungunya infection, dengue fever and
Lyme disease. The choice of a repellent among the commercialised products need to be efficacy and safety evidence based. This article propose to raise this issue and to give pragmatic recommendations, with a focus to children below 30 months who are at a high toxicological risk. Severity of these diseases allowed to use potentially toxic repellents if misused.