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Clinical Presentation and Outcomes of Children With Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis
Editor’s Note: Anaplasmosis is increasingly found to be a common co-infection in people with chronic Lyme disease.
Adults with the tick-borne disease human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) have a spectrum of acute febrile illnesses that, if untreated, might be severe. Clinical presentation and outcomes of children with HGA have been poorly described.
A retrospective analysis was conducted to determine the frequency, presentation, and outcomes of pediatric patients with HGA between 1994 and 2015 in a region of Wisconsin in which HGA is highly endemic. Patients with related International Classification of Diseases Ninth and Tenth Revision (ICD-9 and ICD-10, respectively) codes or positive HGA laboratory test results were evaluated and classified as having had confirmed, probable, or suspected HGA on the basis of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) case definition. The Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used in statistical comparisons.
Of 187 children identified with possible HGA, 17 (9%) had confirmed, 75 (40%) had probable, and 91 (49%) had suspected infections. The number of cases rose sharply in 2010 and has remained between 16 and 36 cases per year since that time. A minority of children with confirmed or probable infections had elevated liver transaminase levels (33%), leukopenia (24%), thrombocytopenia (17%), or anemia (8%); 6 (7%) of these children required hospitalization. Children with evidence of concurrent HGA and Lyme disease (27% of confirmed or probable cases) had a higher risk of hospitalization (odds ratio, 6.55 [95% confidence interval, 1.11-38.78]). None of these children had life-threatening disease or died.
Evidence suggests that the frequency of HGA in children is increasing. Although most children had mild disease, doxycycline remains the treatment of choice, because outcome data for children without treatment remains limited.
Source: By Schotthoefer AM1, Hall MC2, Vittala S3,4, Bajwa R2, Frost HM1,3. May 16, 2017. Clinical Presentation and Outcomes of Children With Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. . doi: 10.1093/jpids/pix029. [Epub ahead of print]