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In contrast to rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the triggering antigens are known in reactive arthritis (ReA) and
Lyme arthritis. Thus, in these arthritides the antigen-specific T-cell response can be investigated in much detail and lessons possibly learned for other spondyloarthropathies (SpA) such as ankylosing spondylitis (AS) where T cells may well also play an important role in the pathogenesis. This article focusses on the immunopathology of the SpA, ReA, and AS with special reference to T cells and cytokines.