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We report a patient who developed a chronic sensory-motor polyneuropathy and a progressive myelopathy 4 years after a tick bite. An increased serum antibody titer to Borrelia burgdorferi suggested a diagnosis of
Lyme neuroborreliosis, although a concomitant cervical spondylosis probably contributed to spinal cord damage. Treatment with ceftriaxone resulted in a marked improvement of neuropathic symptoms, providing indirect evidence of spirochetal infection. Search for B. burgdorferi DNA by polymerase chain reaction amplification on sural nerve confirmed the diagnosis, demonstrating that the spirochete localized in the peripheral nervous system. The presence of complement membrane attack complex deposits and macrophage infiltrates around epineurial vessels and within the endoneurium suggests that the neuropathy in our patient was immune-mediated.