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Borrelia burgdorferi specific DNA has been detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in different specimens of patients with
Lyme disease (LD). The aim of the present study is to evaluate PCR-diagnostic of urine specimens regarding rheumatologic diagnosis of
Lyme disease. Urine specimens of 77 patients (LD, n = 34; undifferentiated arthritis (UA), n = 25; arthralgia/myalgia (AM), n = 18) and 15 controls were investigated. Flagellin gene (60 specimens) or OspA-plasmid (32 specimens) were used as targets. Sensitivity of the flagellin-nested-PCR was 27%, by OspA-nested-PCR only one positive PCR result was found. Despite of low sensitivity PCR enabled the correct diagnosis of LD in two patients classified as UA. Therefore, PCR can give valuable hints in single cases if LD is clinically suspected.