Dietary Macronutrient Intake and Five-Year Incident Cataract: The Blue Mountains Eye Study

[Note: Omega-3 PUFA is derived mainly from fish oil.]

Journal: American Journal of Opthalmology. 2007 Apr 23; [E-publication ahead of print].

Authors and affiliation: Townend BS, Towned ME, Flood V, Burlutsky G, Rochtchina E, Wang JJ, Mitchell P. Department of Ophthalmology, Centre for Vision Research, Westmead Millennium Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. [E-mail: paul_mitchell@wmi.usyd.edu.au ]

Purpose: To investigate the relationships between dietary macronutrient intake at baseline and the five-year incidence of the three main types of cataract in older people.

Design: Population-based cohort study.

Setting: An urban community near Sydney, Australia.

Study population: The Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES) examined 3,654 predominantly Caucasian participants aged 49+ years during 1992 to 1994, and then 2,335 survivors (71.5%) after five years. Of these 2,335 subjects, 1988 (85%) completed a Willett-derived food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline.

Observation procedures: A 145-item FFQ was used to assess nutrient intakes and lens photography was used to assess the presence of cataract at both time points.

Main outcome measures: Incidence of cortical, nuclear, and posterior subcapsular (PSC) cataract was assessed via lens photographic grading following the Wisconsin cataract grading method.

Results: After adjusting for multiple known cataract risk factors, higher dietary intakes of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) were associated with a reduced incidence of nuclear cataract. The odds ratio (OR) for subjects in the highest quintile of intake compared to those in the lowest quintile was 0.58 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35 to 0.97), P(trend) = .027.

Similarly, for PSC cataract, higher dietary intakes of protein were protective (OR 0.28; 95% CI 0.10 to 0.76), P(trend) = .015.

Dietary macronutrient intake was not associated with incident cortical cataract.

Conclusions: Higher dietary intakes of omega-3 PUFA may decrease the five-year risk of nuclear cataract, whereas higher dietary intakes of protein may decrease risk for PSC cataract.

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