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In all three stages,
Lyme borreliosis offers a wide range of possible differential diagnoses: even the “typical” erythema chronicum migrans may present as erysipelas, erysipeloid, erythema annulare centrifugum or a drug-induced exanthema. In the advanced stages II and III, neuroborreliosis in particular may be mimicked by various other conditions of both infectious and noninfectious etiology. Major examples are CEE (Central European Encephalitis), ehrlichiosis, chlamydial infections and multiple sclerosis. Currently, the biggest diagnostic problem is the non-standardized laboratory diagnostic work-up. For this reason, even in the presence of a positive or borderline IgG antibody result, unclear symptoms should prompt a differential diagnostic investigation.