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We determined whether the genospecies diversity of
Lyme disease spirochetes in vector ticks questing on a subtropical island is as broad as that in Central Europe. Although spirochetes infected < 1% of the ticks sampled on Madeira Island, these infections included all three genospecies implicated in human
disease. Therefore, spirochetal diversity is as great at the southern margin as it is in the center of this pathogen’s range.