Lyme disease is a debilitating infection that is caused upon a bite of Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb)-infected ticks. One of the most prominent clinical manifestations is the development of chronic
Lyme arthritis. Months after Bb infection, approximately 60% of untreated
Lyme patients experience intermittent arthritic attacks that may last for years. The use of the CD28(-/-) mouse in Bb infection has helped to shed light into the mechanisms that govern this inflammatory process, which seems to be tightly regulated. In this current review, the effect of immunoregulation, as well as CD28 deficiency in the development of chronic
Lyme arthritis is discussed.