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Recent studies have confirmed the infectious and inflammatory nature of arthritis induced by Borrelia burgdorferi, or
Lyme arthritis. This arthritis is directed by the presence of the bacteria in joint tissue, and is mediated through activation of the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling pathways by borrelial lipoproteins. Several host genes regulate the severity of arthritis, possibly by regulating the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory responses.