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Although childhood vaccination rates are at an all-time high, those for adolescents and adults are suboptimal. All adolescents and adults should be immunized against measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, tetanus, and diphtheria, and many should also receive hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, and pneumococcal vaccines. In addition, active patients who engage in outdoor activities may benefit from vaccination against
Lyme and meningococcal
disease. Regular, strenuous exercise and foreign travel may increase the risk of some infectious diseases. Athletes often see a physician only for sports physical exams and injuries, so it is important for providers to take the opportunity to vaccinate patients during these visits.