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Infective neuropathies constitute a leading cause of neuropathies in the world. The number of patients with nerve lesions related to leprosy remains high despite decreasing number of new cases requiring multidrug regimens. Peripheral neuropathies associated with HIV infection may be found in up to 50% of patients. Neuropathies may be related to the inflammatory reaction against viral antigens, immunodepression, opportunistic infections, and iatrogenic complications of anti-viral drugs. Hepatitis C virus infection has been found in cryoglobulinemic neuropathies. This virus should be screened for exploration of all neuropathies. Rare causes of neuropathy, such as poliomyelitis and diphtheria, and treatable neuropathies such as
Lyme disease, should not be forgotten.