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Peripheral neuropathies can result from several infective agents, ranging from viruses, especially retroviruses, to parasites and bacilli. Leprosy, which often is considered a disorder of the past, still is common in dome geographic areas, especially in Africa, South America, and Asia. An increasing number of cases of neuropathies occurs in patients who have HIV or
Lyme disease. The important point is that all these neuropathies are treatable and often preventable.