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Inflammatory neuropathy is the term used for all neuropathies associated with an inflammatory infiltrate of the nerves and/or nerve roots. Broadly speaking, there are two types of inflammatory neuropathies: those caused by an identified infectious agent, and those of uncertain origin for which an autoimmune process is usually blamed. Among the neuropathies of infective origin, leprosy is the most important owing to its frequency and to the physiopathological and therapeutic problems it still poses to clinicians and researchers, since the form and severity of nerve lesions depend on cellular immunity to the bacillus’ antigen rather than on the bacillus itself. Retroviral infections, caused by the virus of AIDS more than by the virus of tropical spastic paraplegia, are responsible for numerous neuropathies the mechanisms of which are discussed here. The principal inflammatory neuropathies of uncertain origin are polyradiculitis and its different forms, and the heterogeneous group of neuropathies associated with Sjögren’s syndrome.